American Psychological Association (APA)

Anwer, I’m glad you read this article. Mask of hurt may be something that is happening for you. Also, if you say what upsets you, you are less apt to be overly angry over time. Expressing your needs and wishes is not the same as inappropriate anger. Don’t let upset and anger eat away at you. It may be good for them, but not for you. I just posted a photo on my Facebook page for Psychology in Everyday Life that says–what may be good for them, may not be good for you. Remember this and take this wisdom to heart.

Positive psychology - Wikipedia

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Classics in the History of Psychology

There is a strong relationship between anger and fear. Anger is the fight part of the age-old fight-or-flight response to threat. Most animals respond to threat by either fighting or fleeing. But, we don’t always have the option to fight what threatens us. Instead, we have anger. Words are the civilized way that we get to fight threat. And, some words, as you know, are meant to sting as deeply as a stab wound. Anger is one of the ways that we help our body to prepare for potential danger. Anger stimulates adrenaline to rouse the brain and body to fight or flee a threatening situation. Of course, in more primitive days, the things that angered us centered solely on threats to our survival (a basic need for food, shelter, water, or land). Today, we are civilized; we’ve formed identities of preferences and values of living that make us complex and psychologically defensive. Assaults to your principles, beliefs, and needs and wishes are the basis for your anger, now. And, you will protect your identity as strongly as if you were defending your right to food, shelter, water or land.

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“Behavior in the human being is sometimes a defense, a way of concealing motivations and thoughts, as language can be a way of hiding your thoughts and preventing communication.” ~ (American Philosopher and Psychologists, 1908-1970).

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Department of Psychology - Durham University

First, you are spot on in question 1– Narcissistic people get very angry when they feel other people do not value them as highly as they value themselves or they feel disrespected in some way. But, important here is that they have a very fragile self-esteem, although they like to appear like they don’t care. They are easily offended and this is why narcissistic people get angry quite easily.
2. Okay, I think you are speaking about Raymond Cattell’s personality assessment test called the 16 PF (16 personality factors that evaluate one’s personality style and defensive patterns, coping mechanisms, and self control amongst other things). You ask an excellent question but it also has many answers. We have to first know why there is emotional instability. As you know by your work, this may be due to some mood disorder, like Bipolar 1 or 2 disorders, which makes one vulnerable to swings of mood and self-control. And, it can be due to some immaturity of coping mechanisms unrelated to biology. We can learn how to stabilize our moods by knowing what emotional stability means in thought, feeling and behavior.

Industrial and organizational psychology - Wikipedia

Neuroleadership – lots of old-fashioned psychology, …