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Note: Spices can be heavily contaminated with microorganisms due to growth, harvesting and processing conditions. Pathogens of concern include , pathogenic , , and . Spices are generally treated with fumigants such as ethylene oxide, sterilized with steam, or irradiated to reduce the microbial load, including pathogens. Care is to be taken to avoid re-contaminating the spices after the antimicrobial treatment step. Spices on their own do not support microbial growth, but could be an ingredient in a food product that does.
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Using chemically treated water to wash and/or process fresh produce can impact public health by minimizing the risk of cross-contamination and reducing pathogens if they are present. The Food Code Annex 3, Public Health Reasons, supports this position in Section 3-302.15 Washing Fruits and Vegetables as follows: