Historical and Contemporary Theories of Management

The term Language Management Theory/Model/Framework refers to the theory, model or framework whose basic features were developed by and . To avoid elementary misunderstanding, it should be emphasized that the identity of the theory is based on the set of its theoretical claims rather than on the heading "language management". We mention this here for two reasons: first, certain fundamental features of the theory were published under different labels, especially "language correction" (this version is dealt with, e.g., by Cooper 1989: 40f.); second, some authors employ the term language management without the theoretical propositions of Neustupný and Jernudd, and may use the term as more or less synonymous with language planning (e.g. Spolsky 2009).

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Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows
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Language Management Theory (LMT) originated alongside Language Planning Theory (cf. in particular Jernudd's references to Neustupný in the collections Rubin and Jernudd 1971 and Rubin, Jernudd, Das Gupta, Fishman and Ferguson 1977; cf. also Jernudd 1983). However, it has gradually grown so far apart from it that it represents a distinct alternative (see Jernudd 1991). What seems to have been decisive was Neustupný's effort to base macro language planning firmly on the theory of language problems (cf. in particular Neustupný 1978). At the theoretical level, particular interactions (discourses) were recognized as the primary source of language problems, which shifted the focus of theoretical thought concerning language planning towards the micro dimension (see Kimura 2005). The ideal model of language-planning activity was found in a process which may be described as follows: the identification of a language problem in individual interactions –> the adoption of measures by the particular language-planning institution –> the implementation of these measures in individual interactions. Neustupný (1994: 50) formulates it as follows:

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This study was motivated by the premise that no nation grows further than the quality of its educational leaders. The purpose of this theoretical debate is to examine the wider context of leadership and its effectiveness towards improving school management. This academic evaluation examines recent theoretical developments in the study of educational leadership in school management. It begins with a concise overview of the meaning and concept of leadership in terms of research, theory, and practice. This is followed by an examination of the theories of leadership, principles and styles of leadership. Each section ends with an identification of contemporary issues and possible means of amelioration. This article concludes that success is certain if the application of the leadership styles, principles and methods is properly and fully applied in school management because quality educational leadership tradition offers great opportunity to further refine educational leadership and management policies and practices by accepting and utilizing the basic principles and styles of educational leadership.

Summaries of over 250+ MBA methods on strategy, performance management, finance, valuation, change, corporate governance, communication, marketing, leadership and responsibility. MBA models and MBA theories. Value Based Management.
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