African Tribes – The African Way of Life - Vacation x Travel
Zulus are the largest black group inside South Africa
In October 1877 the Zulus’ King Cetshwayo told Shepstone that his favoring the Transvaal Boers had ruined their relationship. Bartle Frere became High Commissioner in March 1877 and wanted to break Zulu power. A Natal border incident was used to demand that Cetshwayo extradite two offenders and disband his army within thirty days. Frere sent about 7,000 British troops with volunteers and Africans led by Lord Chelmsford to invade Zululand, and on January 22, 1879 they were disastrously defeated at Isandlwana. He won a token victory for the British at Ulundi on July 4 as the Zulus stopped fighting. Garnet Wolseley promised the Zulus that they could keep their land and cattle after Cetshwayo was captured. He was turned over six weeks later and taken to Cape Town. Wolseley put Zululand under thirteen independent chiefs. Cetshwayo was allowed to visit England in 1882 and to return in January 1883 to Zululand, where he faced rivals for power. Zidhbehu’s Mandlakazi, armed by Johan Colenbrander, defeated Cetshwayo in the Msebe valley in April and at Ulundi in July. Cetshwayo fled to the British in August and died on February 8, 1884.
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Diamonds were discovered in 1867, and by 1870 some 10,000 people were digging along the north side of the Vaal River. That year a second diamond rush started southeast of the Vaal River in the Orange Free State. Natal’s Lt. Governor Robert Keate arbitrated that Griqualand West belonged to the Griqua, but in 1871 Chief Nicolaas Waterboer gained protection as Griqualand West became a British colony with boundaries set by Arnot. African labor was hired and by 1873 made up half of the 50,000 workers. They worked six months or a year for cash to buy guns, farm tools, or brides. An international recession in 1873 forced many to sell their diamond stocks to the wealthy. Hlubu’s Chief Langalibalele had a record harvest that year and owned 15,000 cattle. Suspected for having 63 unregistered guns, he was attacked for not obeying a summons and was imprisoned on Robben Island. Other Hlubi prisoners were made indentured servants. Bishop Colenso defended the Hlubi chief and observed that the Hlubi were treated unjustly because of , an excessive fear of Africans by Europeans. Colonial Secretary Kimberley, after whom the diamond town was named, believed that conflict over the diamond mines prevented the confederation of South Africa; but in 1874 he was replaced by Lord Carnarvon, who began working for federation the next year.