Zulu Tribe of South Africa | African Tribes and People

In 1835 Zwangendaba, after he was defeated by Soshangane and Nxaba, led his Ngoni north across the Zambezi into Zambia, Tanzania, and Malawi while those led by Nxaba stayed in Urozwi raiding the cattle of the Shona. Nxaba ventured north of the Zambezi River also, but he was killed fighting the Kololo. Zwangendaba welcomed various peoples into his Ngoni nation and settled at Mapupo. After Zwangendaba suspected witchcraft and destroyed the “great house,” he died about 1845. His Ngoni nation split into five kingdoms. Three factions moved south to Zambia and Malawi, while the Tuta went north to Nyamwezi. The Gwangara moved to the east of Lake Nyasa but collided with the Ngoni Maseko led by Maputo, eventually driving them south of the Ruvuma River. The Ndendeule fled to the Kilombero valley and in the 1860s established the Mbunga kingdom. The Ngoni invasions in eastern and central Africa destroyed many villages and killed thousands, causing famines and the displacement of populations.

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The Zulu tribe in South Africa, is the largest of the tribal groups in the country

Zulus are the largest black group inside South Africa

In October 1877 the Zulus’ King Cetshwayo told Shepstone that his favoring the Transvaal Boers had ruined their relationship. Bartle Frere became High Commissioner in March 1877 and wanted to break Zulu power. A Natal border incident was used to demand that Cetshwayo extradite two offenders and disband his army within thirty days. Frere sent about 7,000 British troops with volunteers and Africans led by Lord Chelmsford to invade Zululand, and on January 22, 1879 they were disastrously defeated at Isandlwana. He won a token victory for the British at Ulundi on July 4 as the Zulus stopped fighting. Garnet Wolseley promised the Zulus that they could keep their land and cattle after Cetshwayo was captured. He was turned over six weeks later and taken to Cape Town. Wolseley put Zululand under thirteen independent chiefs. Cetshwayo was allowed to visit England in 1882 and to return in January 1883 to Zululand, where he faced rivals for power. Zidhbehu’s Mandlakazi, armed by Johan Colenbrander, defeated Cetshwayo in the Msebe valley in April and at Ulundi in July. Cetshwayo fled to the British in August and died on February 8, 1884.

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Diamonds were discovered in 1867, and by 1870 some 10,000 people were digging along the north side of the Vaal River. That year a second diamond rush started southeast of the Vaal River in the Orange Free State. Natal’s Lt. Governor Robert Keate arbitrated that Griqualand West belonged to the Griqua, but in 1871 Chief Nicolaas Waterboer gained protection as Griqualand West became a British colony with boundaries set by Arnot. African labor was hired and by 1873 made up half of the 50,000 workers. They worked six months or a year for cash to buy guns, farm tools, or brides. An international recession in 1873 forced many to sell their diamond stocks to the wealthy. Hlubu’s Chief Langalibalele had a record harvest that year and owned 15,000 cattle. Suspected for having 63 unregistered guns, he was attacked for not obeying a summons and was imprisoned on Robben Island. Other Hlubi prisoners were made indentured servants. Bishop Colenso defended the Hlubi chief and observed that the Hlubi were treated unjustly because of , an excessive fear of Africans by Europeans. Colonial Secretary Kimberley, after whom the diamond town was named, believed that conflict over the diamond mines prevented the confederation of South Africa; but in 1874 he was replaced by Lord Carnarvon, who began working for federation the next year.

Bantu Tribes of Southern Africa

When Marthinus Pretorius tried to take over the Orange Free State as the heir of his father Andries Pretorius in 1857, a confrontation was resolved by agreeing to mutual autonomy. British Commissioner George Grey tried to mediate the conflict with the Sotho, but in 1859 Grey was recalled to England for promoting British annexation of the Orange Free State. This caused Boshoff, who also favored this, to resign. In 1861 South African Republic’s President Marthinus Pretorius signed the Treaty of Waaihoek, which redefined the border between Zululand and the Transvaal. The unionists elected Pretorius President of the OFS, and he had to resign his office in the SAR. In 1863 Pretorius went back to the Transvaal, where he served as President of the South African Republic until 1871. Parliamentarian Jan Hendrik Brand was elected President of the Orange Free State in 1864 and held that position until 1888.

Zulu King: Blacks Destroy S. Africa – The New Observer

John W. Colenso became Natal’s first Anglican bishop in 1853, and he translated the and some of the into Zulu. Because of his efforts to promote Zulu rights and understand their religion, he was accused of heresy by Archbishop Robert Gray; but his sentence of deprivation was voided by the Privy Council in 1864. Europeans, upset that Natal Kaffirs (Africans) were avoiding work on their farms, began importing indentured laborers from India in 1860. These immigrants were indentured for five years, usually to sugar planters, and after ten years they received free passage back to India. The Governor could grant them land instead, and most Indians stayed in Natal. About 6,000 came from Madras and 300 from Calcutta. By 1870 about 18,000 Europeans lived in Natal among a quarter million Africans; the Boer republics had about 45,000 whites; and the Cape colony had 200,000 Europeans.

South African Political Geography

served the Indian community in Johannesburg, and during the plague of 1904 he got Indian money sterilized so that they could get nursing services. He was instrumental in publishing weekly in English, Gujarati, Hindi, and Tamil from the hundred-acre Phoenix Farm community he founded. He recruited another Indian ambulance unit during the Zulu Rebellion and was made a sergeant major. That year led a delegation to London and met with the Secretary of State for India, John Morley, to present the case for Indians’ rights in South Africa. also met with Winston Churchill, who promised to help.