– tensions, ambiguities and polarities:

- but ideas are confused: the peoples were seen as simpler,happier and more moral etc, but it was still believed that European culture wasbeneficial to them, and importing European culture was justified by theirinnocence

3. freedom ‘a long time coming.’

Enlightenment Ambiguities and Tensions.

5. Key Femalefigures: () deGouges, women and slavery:

- (Himmelfarb argues) did have two problems other countries did not have: the Indians and slavery, and both were ‘very nearly intractable’. Afterall, fundamentally, ‘the displacement of the Indians was the precondition forthe very existence of the settlers.’ (219)

(ii) Mary Wollstonecraft, women and gender

- subsistencefarming, she says, was not compatible with ‘more sophisticated agriculturaleconomy, to say nothing of industry and commerce…’

Introduction – tensions, ambiguities and polarities:

- in addition, the Church had female saints and mystics

- also America was nota poor country, she argues, so there was not so much concern over poverty -in fact some thought luxury more of a social problem than poverty… So there wasn’t so much philanthropy etc as in

- the salons also enabled more women to become writers

- it was, then, commonly believed that settlers wereentitled to take native land – especially because the settlers had superioragricultural techniques etc,

Women, science, industrialisation, and what is ‘natural’?

- some saw the horrors of the impact on the Indians, butblamed it on others. Thus blamed the British for “seducing” theIndians to massacre the whites, and for the consequent “brutalization if not extermination of this (the Indian) race in

Enlightenment inconsistencies/ambiguities:

- John Jayhowever, was concerned that the treatment of the Indians was reducing hiscountrymen to ‘white savages’ – and urged the more gradual extension ofsettlers’ land.

- nature and civilisation (a basic question since women weremainly seen as closer to nature)

Other conflicts inenlightenment thinking on the issue:

- the beauty of the Pacific islands was also appreciated, atthe same time as when beauty was being sought in European landscapes - this canbe seen in the popularity of travel literature (as mentioned), and in thepopularity of stage plays, artists traveling to Tahiti etc, images of plants,engravings… (Outram p 52)

- public and private (which especially applied to the notionof separate spheres for women)

Article by Cecily Jones, Guardian

- William Wilberforce, who is remembered as a significantcampaigner against slavery, was an Evangelical, and a friend of the , (see Himmelfarb p 129, and there is more here onMethodism…)

colonised peoples (this view is still held by some modernwriters, unfortunately)

- Sophie , mistress (highly intelligent, cultured andarticulate)

- Americans regardedthemselves as superior…the Declarationof Independence includes the description: “themerciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguisheddestruction of all ages, sexes and conditions”