the gods in their search for self ..

It certainly agrees in toneand character with the description of Xenophon, who says in the Memorabiliathat Socrates might have been acquitted 'if in any moderate degree he wouldhave conciliated the favour of the dicasts;' and who informs us in anotherpassage, on the testimony of Hermogenes, the friend of Socrates, that hehad no wish to live; and that the divine sign refused to allow him toprepare a defence, and also that Socrates himself declared this to beunnecessary, on the ground that all his life long he had been preparingagainst that hour.

The Ethics of Socrates - Philosophy Home Page

They are headed by Meletus, that good man andtrue lover of his country, as he calls himself.

Philosophy 302: Ethics The Ethics of Socrates

This brings us to the spring and summer of 399, to Socrates’s trialand execution. Twice in Plato’s dialogues (Symposium 173b,Theaetetus 142c–143a), fact-checking with Socrates took placeas his friends sought to commit his conversations to writing before hewas executed. [spring 399 Theaetetus] Prior to theaction in the Theaetetus, a young poet named Meletus hadcomposed a document charging Socrates with the capital crime ofirreverence (asebeia): failure to show due piety toward thegods of Athens. This he delivered to Socrates in the presence ofwitnesses, instructing Socrates to present himself before the kingarchon within four days for a preliminary hearing (the same magistratewould later preside at the pre-trial examination and the trial). Atthe end of theTheaetetus, Socrates was on his way to that preliminaryhearing. As a citizen, he had the right to countersue, the right toforgo the hearing, allowing the suit to proceed uncontested, and theright to exile himself voluntarily, as the personified laws laterremind him (Crito 52c). Socrates availed himself of none ofthese rights of citizenship. Rather, he set out to enter a plea andstopped at a gymnasium to talk to some youngsters about mathematicsand knowledge.

Abstract: The ethics of Socrates is briefly outlined

For me, being self referential is an absolutely vital trait. As advertisers, we often work towards a confirmation bias, taking a strong opinion on an issue and twisting the logic or research to suit our point.

Happiness and Freedom in Socrates and Callicles | …

If it were possible to confine oneself exclusively to Plato’sSocrates, the Socratic problem would nevertheless reappearbecause one would soon discover Socrates himself defending oneposition in one Platonic dialogue, its contrary in another, and usingdifferent methods in different dialogues to boot. Inconsistenciesamong the dialogues seem to demand explanation, though not allphilosophers have thought so (Shorey 1903). Most famously, theParmenides attacks various theories of forms that theRepublic, Symposium, and Phaedo develop and defend. In somedialogues (e.g., Laches), Socrates only weeds the garden ofits inconsistencies and false beliefs, but in other dialogues (e.g.,Phaedrus), he is a planter as well, advancing structuredphilosophical claims and suggesting new methods for testing thoseclaims. There are differences on smaller matters as well. For example,Socrates in the Gorgias opposes, while in theProtagoras he supports, hedonism; the details of the relationbetween erotic love and the good life differ from Phaedrusto Symposium; the account of the relation between knowledgeand the objects of knowledge in Republic differs from theMeno account; despite Socrates’s commitment to Athenian law,expressed in the Crito, he vows in the Apology thathe will disobey the lawful jury if it orders him to stopphilosophizing. A related problem is that some of the dialogues appearto develop positions familiar from other philosophical traditions(e.g., that of Heraclitus in Theaetetus and Pythagoreanism inPhaedo). Three centuries of efforts to solve the Socraticproblem are summarized in the following supplementary document:


andwhat does he charge?' 'Evenus the Parian,' he replied; 'he is the man, andhis charge is five minae.' Happy is Evenus, I said to myself, if he reallyhas this wisdom, and teaches at such a moderate charge.

Love, Philosophy & Socrates – Essays De Jose

It does not follow, however, that Plato represented the views andmethods of Socrates (or anyone, for that matter) as he recalled them,much less as they were originally uttered. There are a number ofcautions and caveats that should be in place from the start. (i) Platomay have shaped the character Socrates (or other characters) to servehis own purposes, whether philosophical or literary or both. (ii) Thedialogues representing Socrates as a youth and young man took place,if they took place at all, before Plato was born and when he was asmall child. (iii) One should be cautious even about the dramaticdates of Plato’s dialogues because they are calculated withreference to characters whom we know primarily, though not only, fromthe dialogues. (iv) Exact dates should be treated with a measure ofskepticism for numerical precision can be misleading. Even when aspecific festival or other reference fixes the season or month of adialogue, or birth of a character, one should imagine a margin oferror. Although it becomes obnoxious to use circa orplus-minus everywhere, the ancients did not require or desirecontemporary precision in these matters. All the children born duringa full year, for example, had the same nominal birthday, accountingfor the conversation at Lysis 207b, odd by contemporarystandards, in which two boys disagree about who is theelder. Philosophers have often decided to bypass the historicalproblems altogether and to assume for the sake of argument thatPlato’s Socrates is the Socrates who is relevant to potentialprogress in philosophy. That strategy, as we shall soon see, givesrise to a new Socratic problem (§2.2).