Searle, (Harvard, 1986);John R.

3. The Problem of the Human Threshold and the Origin of Culture. We know that the capacity for projectuality and symbolism in Hominids coincided with the first hints of intelligence. But when exactly did they show it? When was it that their actions showed real capacity for projectuality and symbolism? Human threshold dating is still one of the most controversial questions in the field of paleoanthropology. As a matter of fact, we must admit that the origins of human beings and their culture lie in deepest darkness.

Recommended Reading: (Hackett, 1991);P.

In  (1983) and (1992)Searle emphasizes the  of and to the merely  elements of human existence.

Barnes (Washington Square, 1993);, ed.

Along with the presence of Homo habilis , also territorial organization has been found: researchers identified areas corresponding to huts built and used by men for different reasons: dwelling, flintstone carving or food distribution. Of considerable interest is also the level of development achieved in the regions of brain associated with articulated language (the Broca area for the relevant muscles and the Wernike area for language understanding). It is the endocranial cast, where the first brainprints were taken, which gave these results. In many authors' opinions, these elements show that the Homo habilis species was undoubtedly human.

Rorty (California, 1988);Alfred R.

4. Homo Erectus. As early as 1,6 million years ago in Africa life forms having a higher cranial capacity but featuring, however, a certain roughness, start to become evident. Despite the finds unearthed in eastern Africa (Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania), we know that they soon spread both northwards and southwards moving farther to Eurasia, where they went on evolving for hundreds of thousands of years. Although it may lead to misunderstandings, the adjective erectus did not refer to any functional feature, as if they had acquired the upright posture. Instead, it revokes the ancient fossils of Pithecanthropus erectus discovered in Java in the late 19th century, including a typically human femur and a rather primitive skull. The name of Homo ergaster has recently been proposed for the earliest African forms of Homo erectus. All the human fossils dating back to some 200,000 - 100,000 years ago, when their characteristics gave promise of developing into Homo sapiens, are classified as Homo erectus. Not only did they have a stronger skull than Homo habilis , with massive occipital and supraorbital bony ridges, but they also showed an expansion of cranial capacity (from 800 cc. to 1100 cc.). Furthermore, their civilization proved to be more advanced: bifacial industries, pebble carving, and stone chipping, in addition to " Levallois " artifacts, dated to a later stage in their evolution.

by Robert Van Gulick and Ernest Lepore (Blackwell, 1993); andWilliam Hirstein,  (Wadsworth, 2000).
Hence, a common abbreviation for "" and "," Latin designations for the of and.

DeVries and Tim Triplett (Hackett, 2000).

Although most of us retrospectively acknowledge the role of such a practice in our own lives, it isn't clear what makes it possible for a single person to be both deceived and deceiver.

, , and  condemned self-deception as, or an  response to the produced by contemplation of human .

by Paul Horwich (Dartmouth, 1994); and, ed.

Evolution presupposes creation. God's creative activity is inherent in the things and transcends them at the same time; it makes things exist according to their own features and laws. Various Christian thinkers attempted to highlight this characteristic, although sometimes they did it in diverse perspectives. "It is not a creative evolution —observed Nicolas (1973)— but a creation expressing itself completely only through evolution." A kind of creation that Teilhard de Chardin defined as "an act spanning all the duration of the universe." In this regards, of particular interest is what John Paul II affirmed on the occasion of a Symposium on : "Neither a genuine faith in creation nor a correct teaching of evolution may pose obstacles: evolution, in fact, presupposes creation. In the light of evolution, creation is an ever-lasting process —a creatio continua—, in which God becomes visible to the eyes of believers as the 'Creator of the heaven and earth'" (Insegnamenti, VIII,1 (1985), p. 1132). With his outstanding , John Paul II proves that, by this time, creation is accepted in a context where "new knowledge has led to the recognition of more than one hypothesis in the theory of evolution" (Message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, ORWE 30.10.1996, p. 7).

How can I both know the truth and yet keep it from myself at the same time?

Palmer, (Cambridge, 1981);, ed.

The "Chinese Room" thought-experiment in his "Minds, Brains, and Programs" (1980) purports to show that even effective do not embody genuine intelligence, since rule-governed processes need not rely upon understanding by those who perform them.