Recommended Reading: (Hackett, 1991);P.
Barnes (Washington Square, 1993);, ed.
Along with the presence of Homo habilis , also territorial organization has been found: researchers identified areas corresponding to huts built and used by men for different reasons: dwelling, flintstone carving or food distribution. Of considerable interest is also the level of development achieved in the regions of brain associated with articulated language (the Broca area for the relevant muscles and the Wernike area for language understanding). It is the endocranial cast, where the first brainprints were taken, which gave these results. In many authors' opinions, these elements show that the Homo habilis species was undoubtedly human.
Rorty (California, 1988);Alfred R.
4. Homo Erectus. As early as 1,6 million years ago in Africa life forms having a higher cranial capacity but featuring, however, a certain roughness, start to become evident. Despite the finds unearthed in eastern Africa (Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania), we know that they soon spread both northwards and southwards moving farther to Eurasia, where they went on evolving for hundreds of thousands of years. Although it may lead to misunderstandings, the adjective erectus did not refer to any functional feature, as if they had acquired the upright posture. Instead, it revokes the ancient fossils of Pithecanthropus erectus discovered in Java in the late 19th century, including a typically human femur and a rather primitive skull. The name of Homo ergaster has recently been proposed for the earliest African forms of Homo erectus. All the human fossils dating back to some 200,000 - 100,000 years ago, when their characteristics gave promise of developing into Homo sapiens, are classified as Homo erectus. Not only did they have a stronger skull than Homo habilis , with massive occipital and supraorbital bony ridges, but they also showed an expansion of cranial capacity (from 800 cc. to 1100 cc.). Furthermore, their civilization proved to be more advanced: bifacial industries, pebble carving, and stone chipping, in addition to " Levallois " artifacts, dated to a later stage in their evolution.