Criticism of the Pledge of Allegiance - Wikipedia
The Pledge of Allegiance | The American Legion
The Pledge of Allegiance was written in August 1892 by the socialist minister Francis Bellamy (1855-1931). It was originally published in on September 8, 1892. Bellamy had hoped that the pledge would be used by citizens in any country.
The U.S. Pledge of Allegiance and its under God phrase
On October 12, 1892, thequadricentennial of Columbus' arrival, more than 12 million childrenrecited the Pledge of Allegiance, thus beginning a required school-dayritual.