agency's EEO office concerning the issues discussed and the ..

There are a large number of issues debated in the global justiceliterature concerning migration, whether temporary, permanent, legal orillegal. These include: Should states have the right to controltheir borders? Even if they have such a right, should states bemore generous in admitting would-be migrants, especially consideringthe facts about global disparities in life prospects? Whenaffluent developed states refuse to open their borders to theeconomically disadvantaged, is this equivalent to members of thearistocracy unjustly protecting their privilege as was the case infeudal times? What responsibilities are there to admit morerefugees? Can illegal immigration be justified under certaincircumstances? What sorts of criteria may affluent developedcountries use when selecting migrants from the pool of applicants forcitizenship? May they legitimately consider how prospectivemigrants would fit in with current citizens, favoring certainreligious, linguistic, or ethnic affiliations to managecompatibility? When making migrant selection decisions, shouldthey consider the effects on those who remain in countries of originand if so, is this fair to the would-be migrants who would be excludedon grounds of the alleged negative impacts for home countrycitizens? If states admit migrant workers, are there moralconstraints on how they should be treated? Would admittingtemporary workers without simultaneously allowing them a pathway tocitizenship be unjust? What responsibilities do we have inrelation to human trafficking?

Police Misconduct and Civil Rights Law

memoranda concerning those constitutional issues have ..

OHCHR | International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Increased interest concerning issues of global justice has alsocoincided with enhanced interest in the place and value ofnationalism. These explorations also track contemporary events such asnationalist clashes which have spilled over into widespread suffering(notably in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda), increased calls fornational self-determination to carry considerable weight, such as instate recognition for Palestinians or Tibetans, and also in the caseof secession (prominently, Quebec). In this area global justicetheorists have been concerned with a range of important questions suchas: Under what conditions should claims to national self-determinationbe granted substantial weight? When should self-determination yield toconcern for protecting human rights? Are commitments to nationalismand global justice compatible? Is genuine democracy only possible atthe state level or are there robust forms of democracy that arepossible in more international fora? How are ideals of democracy bestincorporated into defensible global institutional arrangements? Isworld justice possible without a world state?

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ..

Theories of global justice aim to help us understand our worldbetter and what our responsibilities are in it. While sometheorists aim purely at theoretical understanding, others hope also toprovide an analysis that can be useful in practical policy makingconcerning global justice matters.

Wide variations can now be identified

Defenders of Rawls’s views argue that his position is morecomplex than is commonly acknowledged and allows for both a principledstance on some fundamental values along with appropriate openness toalternative ways in which legitimate and decent peoples might organizetheir collective lives (Reidy 2004, Freeman 2006). They argue thatRawls’s position shows great sensitivity to a number of factorsthat must be weighed in considering right conduct in internationalaffairs. For instance, when Rawls makes his bold claims about thecauses of wealth it is useful to bear in mind the context in which heis arguing. Against an assumption that resources are enormouslyimportant for a society’s ability to flourish, Rawls emphasizesthe importance of strong institutions, political culture and otherlocal factors, in sustaining decent lives for citizens. Rawls alsoreflects on the difficulty of changing political culture, noting thatsimply transferring resources will not help. Interestingly, in alittle discussed passage, Rawls ventures that an “emphasis onhuman rights may work to change ineffective regimes and the conduct ofrulers who have been callous about the well-being of their ownpeople” (Rawls 1999, p. 109). For more on whether Rawls providesus with a cogent model that can provide sage guidance in international matters see the entry on and the entry on . See also Martin andReidy (2006). For the purposes of this entry we need only summarizesome key questions that were influential in setting the terms ofdiscussion about global justice for some time.

About the Small Arms Survey The Small Arms Survey in Brief

In the words of Diogenes, widely credited as the first person topropound cosmopolitan views, cosmopolitans see themselves as“citizens of the world”. Contemporary cosmopolitanstypically hold that every human being has standing as an ultimate unitof moral concern and is entitled to equal consideration of herinterests no matter what other affiliations, especially nationalaffiliations, she might have. Drawing on the idea that we allhave equal moral worth, cosmopolitans seek to broaden our moralhorizons so that we do not forget about the responsibilities we have toothers beyond state borders, even when we have local responsibilitiesas well.

Chemical Warfare Agents: Emergency Medical and …

Leif Wenar is also concerned with prevailing practices governing thesale of natural resources and their products (Wenar 2010). Whenconsumers in wealthy states buy goods from developing countries, thisis often similar to consciously receiving stolen goods. Legitimate resource sales require general agreement fromcitizens. Evidence of agreement requires that: (i) owners must beinformed about sales, (ii) owners must be able to express dissentfreely should they have doubts about sales, and (iii) owners should beable to stop resource sales without fearing grave consequences such asviolence and intimidation. In these sorts of ways, Wenar aims tooutlaw dispossession of citizens’ resources.