For instance Tsar Kalojan of was called the "Roman Killer," , .

The Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204 (at the connivance, sadly, of Venice), and then refugees from the fall of the City to the in 1453, rather crudely, but effectively, brought much of the heritage of the Roman East back into the hitherto poorer Mediaeval civilization of the West.

Tony's historical atlas (with Tony) disappeared from the Web.

I use Roman names for the planets in the sky, which also get applied to the .
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THE FIRST EMPIRE, "ROME,"27 BC-284 AD, 310 years

In 330 A.D., Roman Emperor chose Byzantium as the site of a “New Rome” with an eponymous capital city, . Five years earlier, at the Council of Nicaea, Constantine had established Christianity—once an obscure Jewish sect—as Rome’s official religion.

Palmyra will briefly play a signifiant role in Roman history in the .

The citizens of Constantinople and the rest of the Eastern Roman Empire identified strongly as Romans and Christians, though many of them spoke Greek and not Latin.

But if, to historians, they are neither Greeks nor Romans, what can they be?
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The Latin Church felt no sting from Islâmic ideology.

Where it came from was recently proven when the foot that is obviously missing from the figure on the right was discovered in Istanbul, before the (, "its mosque"), previously the Myrelaion Church, in the original Philadelphion square [cf.

Romania would never return to Central or Northern Italy.

A noteworthy act at the conference at Carnuntum was the dedication of an altar to the god Mithras, as the , "protector of the Empire." Mithraism considered Mithras to be a sun god, associated and assimilated with , the "Unconquered Sun," whose cult existed independently of Mithras and had been promoted since Aurelian.

The list of Doges is taken from , by Donald M.

Meanwhile, Maxentius had whipped up enthusiasm at Rome with the promise that, after a century, he would return the seat of Government there and would restore the withering Praetorian Guard to its status and privileges as the Life Guard of the Emperor.

Odaenath, the King of Palmyra (c.260-266), was a Roman ally.

One of the many factors that contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire was the rise of a new religion, Christianity. The Christian religion, which was monotheistic ran counter to the traditional Roman religion, which was polytheistic (many gods). At different times, the Romans persecuted the Christians because of their beliefs, which were popular among the poor.

On the map, the Visigoths have actually become allies of the Romans.

The Latin regime established in Constantinople existed on shaky ground due to the open hostility of the city’s population and its lack of money. Many refugees from Constantinople fled to Nicaea, site of a Byzantine government-in-exile that would retake the capital and overthrow Latin rule in 1261.

There, if they indeed arrived, they disappear from history.

Galerius then called a conference at Carnuntum on the Danube in Upper (Superior) Pannonia (just down the river from modern Vienna, Roman Vindobona).