Will they find a society in upheaval
Sacred Texts: Women and Religion
Considerable research in the past 30 years has been devoted to womenand work in the context of shifting divisions of labor globally(Ehrenreich and Hochschild 2004). Some of this feminist work proceedsfrom the development perspectives promoted by the UN and other policymaking institutions (Chen et al 2005), while other research takes amore critical view (Beneria 2003; Pyle and Ward 2007). Many studiesaddress changes in the gender division of labor within specificnational economies (Freeman 1999; George 2005; Rofel; Sangster 1995)while others consider the impact of transnational migration onwomen’s class position (Pratt 2004; Romero 1992; Stephen 2007;Keogh 2015) and women’s opportunities for cross-class solidarityand grassroots-based organizing (Mohanty 2003). More recent feministresearch has addressed the restructuring of work and its impact onwomen and gender culture as an effect of neo-liberal economicadjustments (Adkins 2002; Enloe 2004; Federici 2008; McRobbie 2002;Skeggs 2003).
Little Women: Marriage is All | onereadleaf
Marxism as a philosophy of human nature stresses the centrality ofwork in the creation of human nature itself and humanself-understanding (see the entry on Marxism). Both the changing historical relations between human work and nature,and the relations of humans to each other in the production anddistribution of goods to meet material needs construct human naturedifferently in different historical periods: nomadic humans aredifferent than agrarian or industrial humans. Marxism as a philosophyof history and social change highlights the social relations of workin different economic modes of production in its analysis of socialinequalities and exploitation, including relations of domination suchas racism and sexism. (Marx 1844, 1950, 1906–9; Marx and Engels 1848,1850; Engels 1942). Within capitalism, the system they most analyzed,the logic of profit drives the bourgeois class into developing theproductive forces of land, labor and capital by expanding markets,turning land into a commodity and forcing the working classes fromfeudal and independent agrarian production into wage labor. Marx andEngels argue that turning all labor into a commodity to be bought andsold not only alienates workers by taking the power of production awayfrom them, it also collectivizes workers into factories and massassembly lines. This provides the opportunity for workers to uniteagainst the capitalists and to demand the collectivization ofproperty, i.e., socialism, or communism.