SparkNotes: Herland: Plot Overview

More recent work in socio-legal studies also has begun to question thelimits of intersectional analysis (Grabham et al. 2009). Itacknowledges the importance of intersectionality, a term coined by lawprofessor Kimberlé Crenshaw (1989) to shed light on epistemicinjustice done to Black women in anti-discrimination law. Yet, despiteits merit for overcoming the dual system’s theoretical impasse,Joanna Conaghan also critiques the essentializing tendencies ofintersectional analysis which succeeds mainly dealing with race andgender oppression at an individual level, but it has little to offerto remedy structural injustice. Furthermore, because such method isidentity-focused it will not get at the dimension of class which hasbeen traditionally thought in relational not locational terms (2008,29–30).

Will they find a society in upheaval

About Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)

Sacred Texts: Women and Religion

Considerable research in the past 30 years has been devoted to womenand work in the context of shifting divisions of labor globally(Ehrenreich and Hochschild 2004). Some of this feminist work proceedsfrom the development perspectives promoted by the UN and other policymaking institutions (Chen et al 2005), while other research takes amore critical view (Beneria 2003; Pyle and Ward 2007). Many studiesaddress changes in the gender division of labor within specificnational economies (Freeman 1999; George 2005; Rofel; Sangster 1995)while others consider the impact of transnational migration onwomen’s class position (Pratt 2004; Romero 1992; Stephen 2007;Keogh 2015) and women’s opportunities for cross-class solidarityand grassroots-based organizing (Mohanty 2003). More recent feministresearch has addressed the restructuring of work and its impact onwomen and gender culture as an effect of neo-liberal economicadjustments (Adkins 2002; Enloe 2004; Federici 2008; McRobbie 2002;Skeggs 2003).

Little Women: Marriage is All | onereadleaf

Marxism as a philosophy of human nature stresses the centrality ofwork in the creation of human nature itself and humanself-understanding (see the entry on Marxism). Both the changing historical relations between human work and nature,and the relations of humans to each other in the production anddistribution of goods to meet material needs construct human naturedifferently in different historical periods: nomadic humans aredifferent than agrarian or industrial humans. Marxism as a philosophyof history and social change highlights the social relations of workin different economic modes of production in its analysis of socialinequalities and exploitation, including relations of domination suchas racism and sexism. (Marx 1844, 1950, 1906–9; Marx and Engels 1848,1850; Engels 1942). Within capitalism, the system they most analyzed,the logic of profit drives the bourgeois class into developing theproductive forces of land, labor and capital by expanding markets,turning land into a commodity and forcing the working classes fromfeudal and independent agrarian production into wage labor. Marx andEngels argue that turning all labor into a commodity to be bought andsold not only alienates workers by taking the power of production awayfrom them, it also collectivizes workers into factories and massassembly lines. This provides the opportunity for workers to uniteagainst the capitalists and to demand the collectivization ofproperty, i.e., socialism, or communism.

“In the Land of Retinal Delights: The Juxtapoz Factor”, Laguna Art Museum in association with Gingko Press
Heartney, Ealeanor “The Reckoning: Women Artists of the New Millenium”, Random House Books, September 16

Passing: Jealousy and Envy | onereadleaf

Carol Gilligan (1982) claims that women and girls tend to use adifferent form of ethical reasoning — she terms this the“ethics of care” — than men and boys who use anethics of justice. Some have argued that this different ethicalapproach is due to women’s caring sensibilities that have beendeveloped by the sexual division of labor (Ruddick 1989).Interestingly, the debate between feminist theorists of justice, e.g.,Fraser and Okin, and ethics of care feminists such as Gilligan andRuddick, is less about substance than a meta-ethical disbute as towhether ethics should concern principles or judgments in particularcases. All of these theorists seem to have ideal visions of societywhich dovetail: all would support the elimination of the sexualdivision of labor so that both men and women could become equallysensitized to particular others through caring work.

“Off the Beaten Path: Violence, Women, and Art”, Art Work for Change and the Tides Center, traveling to:

Herland, by Charlotte Perkins Stetson Gilman - Gutenberg

Liberal, Marxist and radical feminists have all characterized women asdoubly alienated in capitalism because of the public/private splitthat relegates their work as mothers and houseworkers to the home, andpsychologically denies them full personhood, citizenship and humanrights (Foreman 1974, Okin 1989, Pateman 1988, Goldman 1969). Notingthat women workers on average only have about 70% of the averagesalary of men in the contemporary U.S., feminists have claimed this isbecause women’s work, tied stereotypically to housework andhence thought unskilled is undervalued, whether it is cleaning or roteservice work, or nurturing work thought to be connected to naturalmaternal motivations and aptitudes. Hence some feminists haveorganized in campaigns for “comparable worth” to raisewomen’s wages to the same as men’s wages involvingcomparable skills (Brenner 2000; cf. also articles in Hansen andPhilipson eds. 1990).

The women of Herland are themselves concerned about their lack of men, feeling that their society would benefit from a masculine perspective and contribution.

Apr 25, 2014 · Three male explorers set off to find a land they have only heard about that is populated solely by women

A good place to situate the start of theoretical debates about women,class and work is in the intersection with Marxism and feminism. Suchdebates were shaped not only by academic inquiries but as questionsabout the relation between women’s oppression and liberation andthe class politics of the left, trade union and feminist movements inthe late 19th and 20th centuries, particularlyin the U.S., Britain and Europe. It will also be necessary to considervarious philosophical approaches to the concept of work, the way thatwomen’s work and household activities are subsumed or not underthis category, how the specific features of this work may or may notconnect to different “ways of knowing” and differentapproaches to ethics, and the debate between essentialist and socialconstructionist approaches to differences between the sexes as a basefor the sexual division of labor in most known human societies.