On January 16, 1991, President George H

The first PSYOP teams deployed to on 7 August. On 10 August the PSYOP planning cell was in CENTCOM HQ. On 11 August CENTCOM set forth the National and PSYOP objectives, themes to be stressed and avoided, military actions, target audiences and PSYOP products. By 17 August a Desert Shield PSYOP Strategic Plan was finalized. We should point out that it took months for the plan to be approved by everyone up the chain of command and required General Schwarzkopf to get personally involved. The Post-Operational Analysis of Psychological Operations During Desert Shield/Storm adds:

"Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm"

Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm

American Women in Uniform, Desert Storm - Aug

A quick word about the cost of the war. Desert Shield/Storm was a bad precedent for the because it was one of those very rare cases when other nations paid the vast bulk of the costs. The got most of its oil from so had no great reason to rush to the defense of . However, both and did use Kuwaiti oil, and many of the Arab nations were willing to pay to help free itself from the Iraqi yoke. I recall at the time that there was a joke that if the Army built a security fence in the bill would be sent to . It was a joke, but there was the germ of truth in it. As a result, future wars (like Iraqi Freedom) would be fought by a with the belief that much of the cost would be picked up by oil sales and other nations. This turned out to be a futile hope. In the case of the first Persian Gulf War, the cost was 61.1 billion dollars and 53.7 billion were paid by (16.8), (16.1), (10.0), (6.6), United Arab Emirates (4.1), and other nations (0.4). As a percent of Gross Domestic Product (0.3%), Desert Storm was the cheapest war fought in U.S. history. The greater cost of the war to the region was likely more than $676 billion.

Saddam’s Scorecard from Desert Storm | On War and …

The Psywar Society (An international association of PSYOP historians and collectors) wanted to be the first to publish a booklet on the subject, so working together with author R. G. Auckland and some other members we published Aerial Propaganda Leaflets Produced by the United Nations Joint Forces for Operation Desert Storm in 1991. This booklet was a bit premature because many leaflets had not yet surfaced, but at 72 pages it was the first civilian published PSYOP reference of the war. The Psywar Society used its own numbering system in the booklet.

A history of women in the military from the Revolutionary War to present day

Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm

The booklet says:

Rick Atkinsondiscusses logjam this in , Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, 1993.
However, the plan was eventually approved and was a great success. At about the same time in November 1990, the Proven Force auxiliary plan for operations in was approved in concept. We should also mention that as the 4th PSYOP Group geared up for Operation Desert Storm it required manpower from its various battalions and detachments deployed in South America, Europe and Asia. A call went out to identify and rapidly reassign experienced PSYOP officers and those with special skills from around the world to the 4th POG. Eventually, forty PSYOP officers who called themselves the "Lost Boys" were identified and assigned to the battle against Saddam Hussein. The main American proponent of psychological warfare leaflets was the 4th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne). They produced and printed over 29 million leaflets. The Coalition forces packed M129E1 leaflet bombs with up to 54,000 machine-rolled leaflets, which were dropped over Iraqi concentrations by F-16, F/A-18, B-52, and MC-130 aircraft. Other leaflets were delivered by balloons. Before the war started, 12,000 leaflets were floated onto the beaches of Kuwait by bottle. Interrogation of Iraqi prisoners revealed that 98% had seen Coalition leaflets. Atkinson says:
The Post-Operational Analysis of Psychological Operations During Desert Shield/Storm indicates that leaflet missions were flown on 33 days from 20 December 1990 to 24 February 1991. Six missions were classified, 15 were from MC-130 aircraft, 7 from F-16 fighter-bombers, and 5 were B-52 drops. In all, 19.08 million CENTCOM leaflets were disseminated on , and . Approximately 10 million were dropped on Northern Iraq, presumably from . The leaflets and themes were approved by General Schwarzkopf's staff, and then printed independently in Saudi Arabia and Turkey. Colonel Jeffrey B. Jones discusses the Psychological operations in an article entitled “Psychological Operations in Desert Shield, Desert Storm and Urban Freedom, , July 1994
In 2016, on the anniversary of the 1 December 1967 activation of the 8th PSYOP Battalion, a synopsis of their activities in Desert Storm was given:
Collecting PSYOP Leaflets PFC David Simmons was assigned to Bravo Company, 502nd Support Battalion of the 2nd Armor Division during Operation Desert Storm. Here he shows Souvenir-hunting Coalition soldiers bending over to pick up some of the thousands of Allied PSYOP leaflets dropped on a berm that defines the Saudi Arabian - Kuwait border.

Association of 3d Armored Division Veterans

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