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The music of this three-period-era is when the techniques, ideas, and written language of classical music as we know it today were standardized and systemized.

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The music of this period is solely vocal and usually without instrumental accompaniment.

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During the nineteenth century, composers from non-Germanic countries began looking for ways in which they might express the musical soul of their homelands. Many of these turned to indigenous history and legends as plots for their operas, and to the popular folk melodies and dance rhythms of their homelands as inspiration for their symphonies and instrumental music. Others developed a highly personal harmonic language and melodic style which distinguishes their music from that of the Austro-Germanic traditions.

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By the turn of the century and for the next few decades, artists of all nationalities were searching for exciting and different modes of expression. Composers such as explored unusual and unorthodox harmonies and tonal schemes. French composer was fascinated by Eastern music and the whole-tone scale, and created a style of music named after the movement in French painting called Impressionism. Hungarian composer continued in the traditions of the still strong Nationalist movement and fused the music of Hungarian peasants with twentieth century forms. Avant-garde composers such as explored the manipulation of rhythms rather than the usual melodic/harmonic schemes. The tried-and-true genre of the symphony, albeit somewhat modified by this time, attracted such masters as and , while gave full rein to his manipulation of kaleidoscopic rhythms and instrumental colors throughout his extremely long and varied career.

This period saw the birth of instrumental music, plus the predecessors of opera and ballet.

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The main genre is piano music, with the piano sonata as the dominating sub-genre, but included is also solo music for other instruments, plus the piano duet and duo.

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Note though that this term is also used as a synonym for section or movement, for the former in one-movement instrumental music and for the latter in operatic and vocal music.

rondoInstrumental music in which a basic theme is repeated and alternated with contrasting themes.

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Named after the popular ornate architectural style of the time, the Baroque period (ca.1600 to 1750) saw composers beginning to rebel against the styles that were prevalent during the High Renaissance. This was a time when the many monarchies of Europe vied in outdoing each other in pride, pomp and pageantry. Many monarchs employed composers at their courts, where they were little more than servants expected to churn out music for any desired occasions. The greatest composer of the period, , was such a servant. Yet the best composers of the time were able to break new musical ground, and in so doing succeeded in creating an entirely new style of music.
It was during the early part of the seventeenth century that the genre of opera was first created by a group of composers in Florence, Italy, and the earliest operatic masterpieces were composed by . The instrumental concerto became a staple of the Baroque era, and found its strongest exponent in the works of the Venetian composer . achieved new heights, due to the works of such masters as and others. Dances became formalized into instrumental suites and were composed by virtually all composers of the era. But vocal and choral music still reigned supreme during this age, and culminated in the operas and oratorios of German-born composer .

two violins, viola and cello.2) Body of four musicians playing these instruments.

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In three parts, usually played by four musicians; on two treble instruments, usually violins, with one part each, plus basso continuo with cello and keyboards for the lower part.

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Perfected by Haydn and Mozart in the Classical period, developed by Beethoven, Brahms and Bruckner, that included the program music element, and expanded by Mahler, Shostakovich et al, with a varied number of movements and unconventional orchestration an so on.