Africans in America | Part 2 | Map: The Revolutionary Era

When the war ended on November 11, 1918, African Americans anxiously and optimistically hoped that their patriotic sacrifices would have a positive impact on race relations and expand the boundaries of civil rights. Political leaders attempted to exert influence on the Versailles peace proceedings. W. E. B. Du Bois organized a Pan-African Congress, held in Paris from February 19 to 21, 1919, which challenged the legitimacy of European colonialism. William Monroe Trotter of the Equal Rights League was so determined to reach Paris that, after being denied a passport by the State Department, he obtained passage as a cook and ultimately presented his case to the peace conference. International pressure was closely tied to the domestic expectations of African Americans. Homecoming parades for returning black soldiers, in the North and South, attracted thousands of people and signaled a determination to translate their service into social and political change.

The Negro Motorist Green Book - Wikipedia

(Resource book that explains the African American culture in detail during the Harlem Renaissance.)

African Americans - Encyclopedia of Arkansas

(1949). This is the complete 1949 edition of the book used by African American motorists to find accommodations across the nation which accepted black travelers during the era of racial segregation.

Macmillan - Distinguished & Award Winning Global …

Black soldiers experienced many indignities after World War I, including not being allowed to celebrate the Allied victory. In Paris, the United States refused to allow any black American soldiers to march with other Allied soldiers, including colonial African troops, in the victory parade up the Champs-Elysées on Bastille Day in 1919.

(Good reference book that explores the history of African American artists and art from colonial times to the present.)

A book that has been read but is in good ..

Du Bois's words generated considerable controversy within the NAACP and in the pages of black newspapers across the country, due in part to the fact he was simultaneously advocating for an army captaincy in military intelligence. The controversy reflected the tension between patriotism and race loyalty many African Americans grappled with throughout the war and leaders such as Du Bois struggled to navigate effectively.

Language: English: Publication Year ..

The question still remains that if African Americans were subjects in all of the cultural expressions of art, might they have also been established artists during this period? During colonial times, there were many black artists and crafts people in the 18th century, who did not gain recognition historically.

African American History Timeline: 1701-1800 - …

The war and the pressures of patriotism tested the effectiveness of black political leaders. A number of prominent African Americans worked closely with the government both to rally black support for the war and to address issues such as lynching, segregation, and discrimination against soldiers that exacerbated black dissent. Emmett Scott, the former secretary to Booker T. Washington at the Tuskegee Institute, served as a special assistant to the Secretary of War in charge of matters related to African Americans and the war. His efforts yielded limited results. He did, however, organize a major conference of black newspaper editors and political leaders in Washington, D.C., in June 1918, which produced a statement by the attendees professing their loyalty to the government. The following month, W. E. B. Du Bois wrote the editorial "Close Ranks," in which he stated, "Let us, while this war lasts, forget our special grievances and close our ranks shoulder to shoulder with our own white fellow citizens and the allied nations that are fighting for democracy."

The way we eat reflects how we are taking care of the planet

Little is known about Dave except that he was the first African American to mark the beginning of a ceramic tradition in African American arts and crafts. Some emerging African American artists in the 18th centuries discovered that their heritage was still not being recognized in American art.

Ben Arogundade's book BLACK BEAUTY

Most of the writing done by James Weldon Johnson during the time of the Harlem Renaissance described the reality of black life in America and the struggle for racial identity. There were three major events between 1924 and 1926 of African American literature that placed black writers in the mainstream and launched the Harlem Renaissance.