The temporary website for the NZ Actors' Guild
Administration & Medicine Economics
Currently, it is not clear exactly what makes any given form ofrepresentation consistent, let alone consonant, with democraticrepresentation. Is it the synergy among different forms or should weexamine descriptive representation in isolation to determine the waysthat it can undermine or enhance democratic representation? Onetendency is to equate democratic representation simply with theexistence of fluid and multiple standards. While it is true that thefact of pluralism provides justification for democratic institutionsas Christiano (1996) has argued, it should no longer presumed that allforms of representation are democratic since the actions ofrepresentatives can be used to dissolve or weaken democraticinstitutions. The final research area is to articulate therelationship between different forms of representation and ways thatthese forms can undermine democratic representation.
*FREE* shipping on qualifying offers
One popular approach to addressing the different and conflictingstandards used to evaluate representatives within democratic polities,is to simply equate multiple standards with democratic ones. Morespecifically, it is argued that democratic standards are pluralistic,accommodating the different standards possessed and used by democraticcitizens. Theorists who adopt this approach fail to specify the properrelationship among these standards. For instance, it is unclear howthe standards that Mansbridge identifies in the four different formsof representation should relate to each other. Does it matter ifpromissory forms of representation are replaced by surrogate forms ofrepresentation? A similar omission can be found in Pitkin: althoughPitkin specifies there is a unified relationship among the differentviews of representation, she never describes how the different viewsinteract. This omission reflects the lacunae in the literature abouthow formalistic representation relates to descriptive and substantiverepresentation. Without such a specification, it is not apparent howcitizens can determine if they have adequate powers of authorizationand accountability.