The ()offers a description of as Socrates presented it in his own.

But, they reflect, they "have no choice." Trying to be good judges, they just end up being good Germans, evidently unaware that is not what created America.

The masterpiece among the middle dialogues is Plato's ().

Eventually, he returned to Athens and established his own school of philosophy at the Academy.

) as they appear both in and in.

And I amcalled wise, for my hearers always imagine that I myself possess the wisdomwhich I find wanting in others: but the truth is, O men of Athens, thatGod only is wise; and by his answer he intends to show that the wisdom ofmen is worth little or nothing; he is not speaking of Socrates, he is onlyusing my name by way of illustration, as if he said, He, O men, is thewisest, who, like Socrates, knows that his wisdom is in truth worthnothing.

by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns.

Religion, which included women also, somewhat mixed the private and the public, but was very much a matter of public concern -- as Socrates himself is charged with not honored the "gods of the city." The modern idea of the "political" is smaller to the same degree that the modern liberal idea of private "society" is larger.


Plato draws an analogy with sleep.

, , , is the phrase in Greek [with the cases returned to nominative], "such virtue, the human and political." "Excellence" is often a better translation for , than "virtue," and it may be here.

Sleep comes after being awake and being awake comes after sleep.

There is another thing:--young men of the richer classes, who have not muchto do, come about me of their own accord; they like to hear the pretendersexamined, and they often imitate me, and proceed to examine others; thereare plenty of persons, as they quickly discover, who think that they knowsomething, but really know little or nothing; and then those who areexamined by them instead of being angry with themselves are angry with me: This confounded Socrates, they say; this villainous misleader of youth!--and then if somebody asks them, Why, what evil does he practise or teach?

equality) is innate and not learnt – evidence of a pre-existent soul.

I was conscious that I knew nothing atall, as I may say, and I was sure that they knew many fine things; and hereI was not mistaken, for they did know many things of which I was ignorant,and in this they certainly were wiser than I was.

by Richard Kraut (Rowman & Littlefield, 1997)

"Society," a Latin word, now does not necessarily mean politics and government, and certainly does not in the term "" -- even though a powerful tendency of 20th century politics, due to , is to erase the difference and abolish civil society, politicizing everything.

Here I am, thinking seriously about eternal truth, and then . . .

The translation as "social" thus leaves out most of the area of life covered by the Greek term, though it does cover matters that does and "political" doesn't.

But then, argues by , death must come from life and life from death.

But I observed that eventhe good artisans fell into the same error as the poets;--because they weregood workmen they thought that they also knew all sorts of high matters,and this defect in them overshadowed their wisdom; and therefore I askedmyself on behalf of the oracle, whether I would like to be as I was,neither having their knowledge nor their ignorance, or like them in both;and I made answer to myself and to the oracle that I was better off as Iwas.