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In February 1991 the Liberal Democratic Party asked its members to introduce legislation to regulate sexually explicit manga (Anonymous, 1991a). The motion failed but again served notice that the increase in pornography was of widening social concern. In that year a survey ("Survey on Comics among Youth") by the "Japanese Association for Sex Education" (JASE, 1991) found that among Middle School students 21.6 percent of males and 7.6 percent of females regularly read so called "porno-comics." In 1993 a survey by the Youth Authority of Somucho (Government Management and Coordination Agency) found that approximately 50 percent of the male and 20 percent of the female Middle and Upper High School students were found to regularly read "porno-comics."

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JASE (1991). Survey on Comics Among Youth. Tokyo: Japanese Association for Sex Education.

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Another factor to encourage reporting is that special police rape investigation units sensitive to women's issues were established in September, 1983 and women no longer are treated as if they are the offenders. This was often so in the 1970s. Also significant is that Japan, in the 1990s, established a women-run rape crises center in Tokyo and women's centers in major cities throughout the country. In 1996 the police also started public awareness campaigns which encouraged the victims of sex crimes to report. Sex educators too deserve credit. Sex education, K-12, is standard in Japanese schools and has been so since the 1970s. Sex educators have increasingly become schooled in rape theory, prevention, and reporting, and added such materials to their classroom presentations.

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It has been said that "pornography historically has been an integral part of Japanese culture" (Abramson & Hayashi, 1984). It is more true to say that erotic and fertility themes have been a traditional part of Japanese culture. Indeed religious shrines, ribald stories and both suggestive and explicit art have incorporated sexual icons and representations without shame and without the sin aspect associated with sex in the West. Traditionally these views of sex were in keeping with cultural or Confucian themes seen as enhancing family solidarity through child bearing and as a form of sex education (Abramson & Hayashi, 1984) and a way to enjoy the "good life."

Tjaden, P. J. (1988). "Pornography and Sex Education". Journal of Sex Research, 24, 208-212.

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While it might be accepted that pornography does arouse some people sexually, there is reason to believe it can lead to legal sexual expressions but no measure was taken of such activities. Couples might have increased their love making frequency, artists might have created newly inspired works of art, multitudes might have used the pornography as vehicles for sex education and not a few have probably used the material for reading or viewing pleasure and masturbation. All of these are positive, legal and constructive, or at least nondestructive, social outlets. In Japan, as elsewhere, publishers and others maintain that erotic stories, even in comics, serve as a means of relaxation for adults who feel suffocated in Japan's '"controlled society" (Burrill, 1991).

(formally titled "Sex Education: Programs and Curricula") Also available in format

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Of course there are also some subjects you should steer well clear of. For example don't argue that sex education encourages children to have sex. It doesn't; hormones encourage children to have sex, and the evidence shows that sex education leads to lower rates of STDs and pregnancy, so it's best to avoid this topic. That doesn't matter though, because there are plenty more arguments you can use instead.

“Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to ..

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The terms pornography, rape, sexual assault and such are in popular use but are also legal terms. For the purposes of simplicity in the present discussion, pornography is broadly defined as any sexually explicit material (SEM) primarily developed or produced to arouse sexual interest or provide erotic pleasure. It may be in any media and it may be legal or illegal. In Japan, as in the United States, sexually explicit material to be found illegal must be found obscene. Production or distribution of obscene materials is illegal. Each prefecture can, with its own ordinances, modify the law as it is applied to persons under 18 years of age. In application, nationally not only might pornography include so-called hard core erotica, but until the 1970s and into the 1980s this included material that graphically presented genitals, pubic hair, or frontal nudity. Depictions of any sexual act in educational material or work of art might fall under this definition. Public and official attitudes toward such materials, however, appeared to gradually relax from the 1970's on. Particularly in the years 1990 and 1991, major shifts became apparent in how this law was interpreted; fewer materials were being charged as obscene and even fewer convictions obtained. The reasons for this shift are not obvious.

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Ellis (1989) attributes sex crimes to innate motives toward sexual expression and a drive to possess and control. The increased early age times under family jurisdiction can help modify these drives. So too, we think, can the standard Japanese K-12 sex education programs take some credit. Thus, socially positive proactive forces, in themselves, may account for much of the reduction in the crime seen. Other forces responsible for the modification of sex crimes rates in Japan or elsewhere have yet to be determined.