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Because the Western Hemisphere’s inhabitants were virtually all in their Stone Age, they as greatly as Old World civilizations did, and many societies were environmentally sustainable and provided seeming answers to questions that scientists have asked about Old World civilizations’ development. The natives of coastal California were familiar with agriculture, as it was practiced by nearby inland tribes, but they never adopted it. California was so bountiful, and its climate was so human-friendly, that its natives retained their hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Similarly, northward on the Pacific Northwest's coast, natives created an economy in which half of its calories derived from salmon runs, and those peoples were relatively sedentary without agriculture. Natives turned the Great Plains into a big pasture for bison, and the biome was partly maintained by annual burning of the grasslands. In Mesoamerica, farming has been sustainable for thousands of years. In the Amazon, the natives transformed the rainforest, and a higher proportion of plants and trees provided human-digestible foods than in any other “wild” place on Earth, those natives also terraformed thin tropical soils with ceramics (maybe unintentional) and charcoals (intentional) and made super-soils called and . In summary, native practices in the Western Hemisphere were often sustainable if not quite abundant. But when civilizations arose, they had problems that were like their Old World counterparts'. Their problems were also environmental and not just the injustices of hierarchal societies, often steeply hierarchical.

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The writers of the knew that deforestation led to droughts, and Gilgamesh’s war against the forest foreshadowed the fate of numerous Old World civilizations. The city-states of southern Mesopotamia made regular journeys to Lebanon’s cedar forest. The ruler of , not far from Uruk, had plans for aggrandizing his legacy and leveled cedar forests and rafted their logs downriver to Lagash to fulfill his grandiose schemes. The city-states of southern Mesopotamia deforested upstream river valleys and rafted logs to their downstream cities. Wars between the city-states, and wars of foreign conquest to secure forests and navigable rivers (particularly the Tigris, Euphrates, and of today’s Iran), were common then. Wood became such a coveted commodity that it could approach the value of precious metals and stones, and rulers placed names on mountains corresponding with what tree predominantly grew on each one.

Accommodations & Modifications

Those issues will not be resolved in my lifetime, but migrated past Africa in the . There is evidence and speculation that those humans may have bred with Neanderthals, were killed off by them, migrated across Eurasia, or some combination of those events. There is evidence that or Neanderthal descendants, the , also migrated across Eurasia, perhaps expanding to Southeast Asia as did. The Denisovan evidence arose from analyzing DNA from teeth and bones, which is the only physical evidence of Denisovans discovered so far, and their genes are more prevalent in . To summarize, there is substantial evidence that the human line probably populated Eurasia in significant numbers by 200 kya, and perhaps even anatomically modern humans around 100 kya. They could have driven vulnerable species to extinction, with their advanced toolkit and hunting behaviors, long before behaviorally modern humans left Africa about 60-50 kya. became extinct in East Asia or the islands off of it, and the . Those two primates coexisted for more than a million years and disappeared concurrent with the rise of humans with sophisticated toolsets. They may well have been early casualties of humanity’s success.

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After as little as a half-million years of bedraggled survivors adapting to ice age seas, the ice sheets retreated and the oceans rose. The of the time may have also changed, and upwelling, anoxia, and other dramatic chemistry and nutrient changes happened. Those dynamics are suspected to be responsible for the second wave of extinctions. There also seem to have been .Atmospheric oxygen levels may have fallen from around 20% to 15% during the Ordovician, which would have contributed to the mass death. Seafloor anoxia seems to have been particularly lethal to continental-shelf biomes, possibly all the way to shore. It took the ecosystems millions of years to recover from the Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction, but basic ecosystem functioning was not significantly altered in the aftermath, which is why a has been proposed as a more significant extinction event. The were laid down by the . Most oil deposits were formed in the era of dinosaurs and the processes of oil deposit formation were similar; they were related to oceanic currents. When currents came to shore via the bottom and the prevailing winds blew the top waters offshore, it became a and anoxic sediments could form. When the winds blew onshore and left via the bottom, the waters became clear and are known as nutrient deserts. The oscillation between nutrient traps and nutrient deserts can be seen in oil deposit sediments. In the mid-20th century, Soviet scientists revived an old hypothesis that oil was , a variation of which was also championed by , but improving tools and investigation invalidated those hypotheses. No petroleum geologists today seriously consider the abiogenic origin of hydrocarbons. Oil sediment formation events seem related to mantle and crust processes that created high sea levels and anoxic events, and the last great one was in the , which formed more than 10% of the world's oil deposits.


When using MLA format, follow the author-page method of citation. Thismeans that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation is takenmust appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear in your works-cited list(see below). The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parenthesesfollowing the quotation, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses,never in the text of your sentence.

Freud states that "a dream is the fulfillment of awish" (154).

Some argue that "a dream is the fulfillment of awish" (Freud 154).

Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which aquotation is taken. For instance, if more than one author has the same last name, it isnecessary to provide the author's initials (or even her or his full name if differentauthors share initials) in your citation. If you cite more than one work by a particularauthor, it is necessary to include a shortened title for the particular work from whichyou are quoting.

The Romantic poets demonstrate a concern with the fleeting nature of life:"'My name

is Ozymandias, king of kinds: / Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!' / Nothing

beside remains" (P.B. Shelley, "Ozymandias" ll. 10-12); and "Theflower that smiles

to-day / To-morrow dies" (P. B. Shelley, "Mutability" ll. 1-2).

Some gothic novels feature a character who is in the throes of "the violenceof his feelings"

and "the dark tyranny of despair" (M. W. Shelley, Frankenstein 12).

Short Quotations
To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or threelines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks andincorporate it into your text. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the caseof verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference in theworks-cited list. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appearafter the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appearwithin the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after theparenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.

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