In a world where religions plays such a major role ..
Importance of religion by country - Wikipedia
Another important energy concept is efficiency. For the hunter-gatherers who cooked food over the campfire, the energy was used with an efficiency of less than 5% (the energy that benefited the user, such as cooking the food, warming the air, providing light, etc.). When humans began using hearths as they became more sedentary, their energy efficiency increased. As humans built dwellings and fireplaces, energy efficiency increased, and today, energy efficiency in advanced industrialized civilization reaches more than 35%. As humans kept increasing their gross energy input and the efficiency in using the energy, the . Just as , an increased energy surplus meant an easier life and a better chance of survival. In recent years, while the USA’s GDP-per-capita has risen, its energy-consumption-per-capita . Some have argued that it shows how much more efficient the USA’s economy has become, but it is more likely related to the USA’s de-industrialization, as heavy industry has moved to low-wage nations with weak environmental laws. The USA imports more finished goods in which the energy for mining and manufacturing them was used in other nations, like the imperial subsidy that the British received from their colonies, but far more pronounced when the USA is receiving finished industrial goods and not raw materials, as the British received from India. In generating energy, so-called technological societies have as advanced industrial ones, largely due to the .
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By the 1850s, Germany was , and seminal discoveries and achievements came from German labs. As agriculture became industrialized, two nutrients were identified as key limiting resources as per : phosphorous and . Until 1909, humanity’s source of nitrogen for agriculture was manure. Guano was even the main source of nitrate for gunpowder when World War I began in 1914. After a century of failure by many eminent chemists, in 1909 made one of history’s most momentous breakthroughs when he . That energy-intensive process is responsible for half of humanity’s food supply today. It is also partly responsible for a great deal of water pollution, , and proliferation of weaponry. Haber has also been called the father of chemical warfare, as he was instrumental in , but he nevertheless won his Nobel Prize in 1918 for his nitrogen breakthrough. Phosphorus, which forms the , is the sole element that humanity has not found a substitute for in industrial civilization. Energy makes nitrogen and other elements more available or allows for substitution, while phosphorous must be mined or recycled. German chemical wizardry continued after World War I, and Germany was the center of science in the early 20th century. Relativity and quantum theory, the two pillars of today’s physics, were developed in Germanic nations, and Einstein, , , , , , and dominated physics in the early 20th century, with relatively minor contributions from American, British, and French scientists. From the first Nobel prizes awarded in 1901 to the rise of Nazi Germany in 1933, more than a third of the awards in and went to Germans, and if the Swiss, Dutch, Austrian, Danish, and Swedish laureates are added, they amount to well more than half, particularly for their theoretical work.