In a world where religions plays such a major role in …

There are dry and wet seasons in the tropical rainforests where and live, and they must seasonably change their diets to adapt to available foods. Beyond those rainforests, seasonal variation is more pronounced and, once the easy meat was gone, people survived by engaging in the hunter-gatherer lifestyle familiar to today’s humans. A sexual division of labor existed: men hunted and women gathered. Men had the strength and speed required to hunt wary animals, particularly large game, while women were less mobile, partly due to caring for children.

In a world where religions plays such a major role ..

a man who is so important in our world today lived his life

Importance of religion by country - Wikipedia

Another important energy concept is efficiency. For the hunter-gatherers who cooked food over the campfire, the energy was used with an efficiency of less than 5% (the energy that benefited the user, such as cooking the food, warming the air, providing light, etc.). When humans began using hearths as they became more sedentary, their energy efficiency increased. As humans built dwellings and fireplaces, energy efficiency increased, and today, energy efficiency in advanced industrialized civilization reaches more than 35%. As humans kept increasing their gross energy input and the efficiency in using the energy, the . Just as , an increased energy surplus meant an easier life and a better chance of survival. In recent years, while the USA’s GDP-per-capita has risen, its energy-consumption-per-capita . Some have argued that it shows how much more efficient the USA’s economy has become, but it is more likely related to the USA’s de-industrialization, as heavy industry has moved to low-wage nations with weak environmental laws. The USA imports more finished goods in which the energy for mining and manufacturing them was used in other nations, like the imperial subsidy that the British received from their colonies, but far more pronounced when the USA is receiving finished industrial goods and not raw materials, as the British received from India. In generating energy, so-called technological societies have as advanced industrial ones, largely due to the .

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By the 1850s, Germany was , and seminal discoveries and achievements came from German labs. As agriculture became industrialized, two nutrients were identified as key limiting resources as per : phosphorous and . Until 1909, humanity’s source of nitrogen for agriculture was manure. Guano was even the main source of nitrate for gunpowder when World War I began in 1914. After a century of failure by many eminent chemists, in 1909 made one of history’s most momentous breakthroughs when he . That energy-intensive process is responsible for half of humanity’s food supply today. It is also partly responsible for a great deal of water pollution, , and proliferation of weaponry. Haber has also been called the father of chemical warfare, as he was instrumental in , but he nevertheless won his Nobel Prize in 1918 for his nitrogen breakthrough. Phosphorus, which forms the , is the sole element that humanity has not found a substitute for in industrial civilization. Energy makes nitrogen and other elements more available or allows for substitution, while phosphorous must be mined or recycled. German chemical wizardry continued after World War I, and Germany was the center of science in the early 20th century. Relativity and quantum theory, the two pillars of today’s physics, were developed in Germanic nations, and Einstein, , , , , , and dominated physics in the early 20th century, with relatively minor contributions from American, British, and French scientists. From the first Nobel prizes awarded in 1901 to the rise of Nazi Germany in 1933, more than a third of the awards in and went to Germans, and if the Swiss, Dutch, Austrian, Danish, and Swedish laureates are added, they amount to well more than half, particularly for their theoretical work.

The table below is based upon global …

African Traditional Religion | South African History Online

one. Those Greeks were humble farmers, able to use partially regenerated forests for a self-sufficient lifestyle that could later be seen in the Protestant work ethic and the pioneering spirit. The poet hectored his farmer audience with that could have been uttered by Ben Franklin’s . Athens was established before 1400 BCE and became an important Mycenaean city. It began its resurgence in the late years of Greece’s Dark Age, and between 900 BCE and 300 BCE it became one of the more remarkable experiments in the human journey. By 600 BCE, the reviving civilization had once more eroded the Greek countryside, and , also known as the Tyrant of Athens, , as it was about the only crop that could grow on the badly eroded hills, and farming them did not increase erosion. Greek cities never became very large because the environment could not support large cities. When Greek cities reached about 20,000-to-30,000 people, new colonies were established. That practice led to the Greek colonies that dotted the Mediterranean’s periphery. Also, those colonies founded during the Greek classic era became a hinterland that helped support Athens. There is still debate whether commercial, military, or Malthusian incentives/pressures led to Greek colonization, but with the obvious environmental degradation of Greece, I lean toward Malthusian dynamics being the impetus, and the other factors were making the best of the situation. People rarely leave their homelands if they do not have to.

Religion in the time of Jesus ..

Many reasons were proffered to explain the Minoan decline and collapse, including the . What is increasingly cited as the reason for the Minoan decline (and was probably the ultimate reason for its collapse), was that Minoans , primarily via deforestation. Minoans, just as with many other collapsed civilizations, exceeded their land's carrying capacity. For organisms, carrying capacity always meant food and the ability to reproduce, but for civilizations, it also meant the energy needed to run the civilization’s moving parts, including transportation and the energy used to build structures and goods. If we revisit the “” that life faces, whether to use energy to fuel biological processes or build biological structures, civilizations faced the same choice. Humans commandeered the energy that a tree invested in its growth, and there were two basic ways to use it: liberate the energy in the structure by burning it, or use that structure for building human-usable tools or structures, which included buildings and ships. , as did pottery-making and fireplaces and furnaces to heat buildings. Minoans also built a tremendous fleet of ships for trade and military dominance. When rebuilding Minoan palaces, Crete’s inhabitants used wood exuberantly, but by 1500 BCE, the use of wood in palaces declined precipitously, and when Mycenaean Greece annexed Crete, the forests were gone and Greeks used Crete for pasturing their sheep.

Ancient Greek Religion - Ancient History Encyclopedia

In the Fertile Crescent today, the ruins of hundreds of early cities are in their self-made deserts, usually buried under the silt of the erosion of exposed forest soils. As the Mediterranean Sea’s periphery became civilized, the same pattern was repeated; forests became semi-deserts and early cities were buried under silt. Before the rise of civilization, a forest ran from Morocco to Afghanistan, and only about 10% of the forest that still existed as late as 2000 BCE still remains. Everyplace that civilization exists today has been dramatically deforested. Humanity has since agriculture began. The only partial exceptions are places such as Japan, but they regenerated their forests by importing wood from foreign forests. North America and Asia have been supplying Japan with wood for generations. As civilizations wiped themselves out with their rapaciousness, some people were aware enough to lament what was happening, but they were a small minority. Usually lost in the anthropocentric view was the awesome devastation inflicted on other life forms. was only a prelude. Razing a forest to burn the wood and raise crops destroyed an entire ecosystem for short-term human benefit and left behind a lifeless desert when the last crops were wrenched from depleted soils. In the final accounting, the damage meted out to Earth’s other species, not other humans, may be humanity’s greatest crime. Humanity is the greatest destructive force on Earth since the , and our great task of devastating Earth and her denizens may be .