St. Peter the Apostle, Provincetown, MA
Through this authority, Peter, James, and John directed the Church in the name of Jesus Christ after his death. Peter presided over the selection of a new apostle to replace Judas () and over the ministry on the Day of Pentecost (). Peter confronted the Sanhedrin, performed miracles, and preached the gospel of Christ (-). In many of these activities John was Peter's companion, but Peter took the lead. Through important revelations pertaining to the extension of the gospel to the Gentiles (), Peter's calling as prophet, seer, and revelator is evident (Muren, pp. 150-52). Although modern revelation provides much clarification of information in this regard, Peter's role of presiding over Church councils and directing the general apostolic effort is patently demonstrable through examination of the New Testament and other early Christian sources (Brown, pp. 9-16, 1973).
Why Peter the Apostle (Simon Peter) Is Important
From this country also there were Jews at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, some of whom were converted; and here likewise the Apostle Peter is said to preach, as before observed of Pontus, and who probably founded a church or churches here in the "first" century; and in the "second" century, according to Tertullian (l), there were believers in Christ dwelling in this country; and in the "third" century, Eusebius (m) makes mention of Neon, bishop of Larandis, and Celsus, bishop of Iconium, both in Cappadocia; there was also Phedimus of Amasea, in the same country, in this age, and at Caesarea, in Cappadocia, several martyrs suffered under Decius; and in this century, Stephen, bishop of Rome, threatened to excommunicate some bishops in Cappadocia, because they had rebaptized some that had been heretics: in the "fourth" century there were churches in Cappadocia, of one of which, namely, at Sasimi, the famous Gregory Nazianzen was first bishop, and afterwards of Nazianzum, as was also the famous Basil of Caesarea, in the same country; hither the persecution under Dioclesian reached, and many had their thighs broken, as Eusebius relates (n); from hence were sent several bishops, who assisted at the council of Nice, under Constantine, and at another held at Jerusalem: in the "fifth" century there were churches in Cappadocia, in several places, the names of whose bishops are on record; as Firmus, Thalassius, Theodosins, Daniel, Aristomachus, Patricius, and others: in the "sixth" century there were many famous churches in this country, whose bishops were in the fifth synod held at Rome and Constantinople; and in the "seventh" century there were several of them in the sixth synod of Constantinople; and in the "eighth" century mention is made of bishops of several churches in Cappadocia, in the second Nicene synod; and even in the "ninth" century there were Christians in these parts (o), Asia here intends neither the lesser nor the greater Asia, but Asia, properly so called; and which, according to Solinus (p), Lycia and Phrygia bounded on the east, the Aegean shores on the west, the Egyptian sea on the south, and Paphlagonia on the north; the chief city in it was Ephesus, and so it is distinguished from Phrygia, Galatia, Mysia, and Bithynia, in as here from Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, and from Pontus and Cappadocia, in though they were all in lesser Asia.