Vaihinger described the origins of his theory in (1924).

The classes designated by the terms of a syllogism are represented by overlapping circles, with shading and ×s indicating, respectively, the impossibility and existence of their common members.

In () Valla noted the incompatibility of divine omnipotence with.

This outlook was a significant influence on the psychological theories of.
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Coleman (Toronto, 1993) and, ed.

Veblen's critical analysis of American capitalism is evident in (1899), and (1918) comments on the devastating effect of treating higher education as a business.

by Ernst Cassirer, Paul Oskar Kristeller, and John H.

of Am., 1992);Joseph Raz, (Cambridge, 2001);Sven Ove Hansson, (Cambridge, 2001);Robin Attfield, (Rodopi, 1995); andElizabeth Anderson, (Belknap, 1996).

Recommended Reading:Hans Vaihinger,  (Garland, 1992) andAndrea Wels, .
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Divided States of America | FRONTLINE | PBS | Official …

In () (1911)) Vaihinger extrapolated from's epistemology (as understood by)the notion that all of our concepts—including those involved in both science and—are nothing more than useful fictions.

Read Washington's entire Farewell Address for yourself

defend a strict distinction between, and many contemporary thinkers challenge the presumption that human can ever be genuinely free of value-judgments.

America was united in the wake of 9/11 - USA TODAY

The unenviable task of running against Reagan fell to former Vice President Walter Mondale. Mondale made two bold choices in his campaign, both of which backfired. First, he selected a woman, New York Representative Geraldine Ferraro, as his running mate. Media scrutiny of her husband’s finances put Ferraro on the defensive. Second, Mondale announced in his acceptance speech that he would raise taxes to fight the deficit. He missed the opportunity to point out that a day earlier Reagan had quietly signed a bill raising taxes by $50 billion. Reagan succeeded in tagging Mondale as a typical free-spending Democrat, and won the most lopsided electoral victory since 1936.

Veblen's Philosophy of Higher Education (Edwin Mellen, 1998).

Example: "The temperature is warm today." is difficult to evaluate because there is no clear borderline between "warm" and "not warm".

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Most of Walter Mondale’s ads featured ominous music reminiscent of the soundtrack of the popular horror movie . To evoke the dark side of "Morning in America," these conceptual ads used eerie scenes such as a father digging a hole for a bomb shelter in his backyard to protect his family in case of nuclear war. Mondale’s ads attacked Reagan on three issues: arms control, the deficit, and the widening gulf between the rich and the middle class. The ads asked the public to look beyond the apparent prosperity of the nation and see trouble on the horizon, but their claims did not ring true for the majority of Americans. A Mondale citing Reagan’s foreign-policy failures, with images of the caskets of marines killed in Beirut, was ineffective because Reagan was not considered responsible for that tragedy. Ads that were meant to show Reagan as unfair to the middle class were negated by the irresistible imagery of the upbeat Republican spots. Attacking Reagan simply proved fruitless, and Mondale’s commercials never presented a strong vision of an alternative to the Reagan presidency.

Ayer, (Dover, 1946);Carl Gustav Hempel, , ed.

Alternatively: it is impossible for the premises of a valid argument to be true while its conclusion is false.
All other arguments are invalid; that is, it is possible for their conclusions to be false even when their premises are true.