- BBC debate-podcast on whether the ToV was fair

In the present temper of international feeling, it is impossible to expect the free nations of the world to sit down immediately in equal association with those by whom they have been so grievously wronged. To attempt this too soon would delay and not hasten that process of appeasement which all desire.

- Scott Allsop's podcast on the peace treaties

 Fab  - including a useful survey of the historiography

France's primary objective was to ensure her security.

Whether or not an Anglo-American confrontation with Japan over Shandong at Paris would have prevented the tragic events of 1937-1941 is one of the big questions of history. But the 70th anniversary of the Treaty of Versailles provides an occasion for reflection on this question and the opportunity which was lost for putting Anglo-Chinese relations on a new footing.

The political wrangling became intense.

It wasn't until the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919 that ensured German reparations and the demilitarization of the Rhineland. This created the Maginot line along the Western border and granted France control of Alsace-Lorraine once again.

Wilson pushed for inclusion of his Fourteen Points especially the League of Nations.

This robs the ceremony of all privilege and therefore of all dignity.

The guillotine was introduced as a more humane way of execution during the French Revolution. It was used throughout France as the most common way of executing those condemned during the Reign of Terror between 1792 and 1794. The city of Paris had the most executions, other big cities such as Lyon, Nantes, Angers, and La Roche-s-Yon. Executions were also frequent throughout areas in the Northwest and Southeast.

Wilson and Lloyd George are among the last.

In order to attain their ends they used every channel in their power through which to educate their own subjects in the doctrine that might was right in international affairs. They never ceased to expand German armaments by land and sea, and to propagate the falsehood that this was necessary because Germany's neighbours were jealous of her prosperity and power.

They take their seats at the central table.

As soon as their preparations were complete, they encouraged a subservient ally to declare war against Serbia at forty-eight hours' notice, knowing full well that a conflict involving the control of the Balkans could not be localized and almost certainly meant a general war. In order to make doubly sure, they refused every attempt at conciliation and conference until it was too late, and the world war was inevitable for which they had plotted, and for which alone among the nations they were fully equipped and prepared.

It is divided into three sections.

They kept Europe in a ferment by threats of violence, and when they found that their neighbours were resolved to resist their arrogant will they determined to assist their predominance in Europe by force.

In the middle there is a horse-shoe table for the plenipotentiaries.

Britain's misgivings regarding Japan's intentions in China were quickly justified, for in 1915 Japan imposed its notorious 21 Demands upon a weak Chinese government. These insisted on the transfer of former German rights in Shandong to Japan.

In front of that; like a guillotine, is the table for the signatures.

They sought to sow hostility and suspicion instead of friendship between nations. They developed a system of espionage and intrigue which enabled them to stir up internal rebellion and unrest and even to make secret offensive preparations within the territory of their neighbours whereby they might, when the moment came, strike them down with greater certainty and ease.