- Scott Allsop's podcast on the peace treaties
France's primary objective was to ensure her security.
Whether or not an Anglo-American confrontation with Japan over Shandong at Paris would have prevented the tragic events of 1937-1941 is one of the big questions of history. But the 70th anniversary of the Treaty of Versailles provides an occasion for reflection on this question and the opportunity which was lost for putting Anglo-Chinese relations on a new footing.
The political wrangling became intense.
It wasn't until the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919 that ensured German reparations and the demilitarization of the Rhineland. This created the Maginot line along the Western border and granted France control of Alsace-Lorraine once again.
This robs the ceremony of all privilege and therefore of all dignity.
The guillotine was introduced as a more humane way of execution during the French Revolution. It was used throughout France as the most common way of executing those condemned during the Reign of Terror between 1792 and 1794. The city of Paris had the most executions, other big cities such as Lyon, Nantes, Angers, and La Roche-s-Yon. Executions were also frequent throughout areas in the Northwest and Southeast.
Wilson and Lloyd George are among the last.
In order to attain their ends they used every channel in their power through which to educate their own subjects in the doctrine that might was right in international affairs. They never ceased to expand German armaments by land and sea, and to propagate the falsehood that this was necessary because Germany's neighbours were jealous of her prosperity and power.
They take their seats at the central table.
As soon as their preparations were complete, they encouraged a subservient ally to declare war against Serbia at forty-eight hours' notice, knowing full well that a conflict involving the control of the Balkans could not be localized and almost certainly meant a general war. In order to make doubly sure, they refused every attempt at conciliation and conference until it was too late, and the world war was inevitable for which they had plotted, and for which alone among the nations they were fully equipped and prepared.