Ever the Twain Shall Meet: Orientalism and American …
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“Orientalism in American Cinema: ..
Scholars usually use this widely-used term in one of three contradictory ways. , some scholars use it to describe what is also known as , that is the orientalization of all Jews, including European Jews, as being the alien, inferior Oriental Other of ideological Orientalism. , the great majority of scholars use this term to describe the complex relationship of European Jewish Orientalist scholars and Jewish Europeans generally to European Orientalism from the 18th century to the 1930sduring which time European Jews of various nations wrestled with their identity as being "Oriental" Europeans. Under the influence of Romantic Orientalism as well as ideological Orientalism, Jewish Orientalists both embraced and felt ambivalent about their assumed Oriental identity in a complex process that was both a form self-Orientalism and of counter-Orientalism directed against European anti-Semitic, ideological Orientalism. Jewish Orientalists in Europe often embraced Eastern Jews and Arabs as role models. , however, other scholars use this term to describe a form of Jewish internal Orientalism by which (often secular) Jews in Western Europe came to imagine the supposedly mystical and traditional Jews of Eastern Europe and the Middle East as being a backward, inferior Oriental-like Other. Jewish Orientalism, more generally, is understood to be the predecessor to and a source of Zionist Orientalism. Some scholars use the term and others the term to account for the same general phenomenon of the Jewish European encounter with both Romantic and ideological Orientalism. In all of this, scholars also sometimes use the notion of Jewish Orientalism to point to the complexities of the notion of Orientalism itself.
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Scholars use this term to describe the ways in which Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), a key figure in the European Enlightenment, and other philosophers influenced by him imagined and constructed the Orient through their philosophical writings. They note important similarities in his views with Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), including the notion that history is progressive and European civilization is thus essentially superior to Asian peoples. Kant reflected the general attitudes of European society about Asian peoples, namely that they were essentially backward, sensuous, lacking in morality, lazy, and superstitious. He believed Orientals (like women) to be incapable of rational reflection and believed that they posed a threat to European rationality; they were trapped in a world of their own fantasies. Scholars disagree, however, as to Kant's views specifically on Islam, some arguing that he felt anxiety concerning it while other scholars argue that he had a more-or-less positive view of Islam for his time. In any event, his writings contain relatively few references to the Orient, which makes it difficult to explicate his views and their relationship to his overall philosophy. This term is not widely used, but scholars hold that Kant did have an impact on later European Orientalism.
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