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Scholars use this term usually to describe the ways in which ideological Orientalist values and ideas remain embedded in more contemporary (“post-colonial”) discourses, institutions, and practices as largely hidden assumptions and unintended attitudes. Postcolonial Orientalism can be found particularly among academics, writers, and those in other cultural institutions of former colonies of the West and other peoples that have been the objects of ideological Orientalist prejudices. This term is thus used to describe the ways in which Orientalist habits of mind persist as a form of hidden Orientalism.

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$55 cloth, $21.95 paper) Cold War Orientalism and Embracing the East have much in common.
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Scholars usually use this widely-used term in one of three contradictory ways. , some scholars use it to describe what is also known as , that is the orientalization of all Jews, including European Jews, as being the alien, inferior Oriental Other of ideological Orientalism. , the great majority of scholars use this term to describe the complex relationship of European Jewish Orientalist scholars and Jewish Europeans generally to European Orientalism from the 18th century to the 1930s—during which time European Jews of various nations wrestled with their identity as being "Oriental" Europeans. Under the influence of Romantic Orientalism as well as ideological Orientalism, Jewish Orientalists both embraced and felt ambivalent about their assumed Oriental identity in a complex process that was both a form self-Orientalism and of counter-Orientalism directed against European anti-Semitic, ideological Orientalism. Jewish Orientalists in Europe often embraced Eastern Jews and Arabs as role models. , however, other scholars use this term to describe a form of Jewish internal Orientalism by which (often secular) Jews in Western Europe came to imagine the supposedly “mystical” and traditional Jews of Eastern Europe and the Middle East as being a backward, inferior Oriental-like Other. Jewish Orientalism, more generally, is understood to be the predecessor to and a source of Zionist Orientalism. Some scholars use the term and others the term to account for the same general phenomenon of the Jewish European encounter with both Romantic and ideological Orientalism. In all of this, scholars also sometimes use the notion of Jewish Orientalism to point to the complexities of the notion of Orientalism itself.

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Scholars use this term to describe the ways in which Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), a key figure in the European Enlightenment, and other philosophers influenced by him imagined and constructed the Orient through their philosophical writings. They note important similarities in his views with Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), including the notion that history is progressive and European civilization is thus essentially superior to Asian peoples. Kant reflected the general attitudes of European society about Asian peoples, namely that they were essentially backward, sensuous, lacking in morality, lazy, and superstitious. He believed Orientals (like women) to be incapable of rational reflection and believed that they posed a threat to European rationality; they were trapped in a world of their own fantasies. Scholars disagree, however, as to Kant's views specifically on Islam, some arguing that he felt anxiety concerning it while other scholars argue that he had a more-or-less positive view of Islam for his time. In any event, his writings contain relatively few references to the Orient, which makes it difficult to explicate his views and their relationship to his overall philosophy. This term is not widely used, but scholars hold that Kant did have an impact on later European Orientalism.

Ideological Orientalism, Nesting [Nested] Orientalism, Secondary Orientalism (2nd definition).
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Scholars generally use this term in two distinct, related ways. and most often, scholars use it to describe situations in which Western medicine is held to be superior to the medical practices and institutions of an Other, usually an Oriental Other. “Oriental” medicine is thus seen as superstitious, backward, and unscientific. Edward Said is often cited as the source for this first usage. , Aull & Lewis use this term to describe the entire complex of American medical practices and institutions, which they see as imagining and treating patients and even medical practitioners themselves as essentially inferior and ignorant Others.

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This term is attributed to John Walbridge, (2001). Scholars normally use it to describe an ancient philosophical-religious tradition held to originate with Plato, which was revived in Europe in the 15th century and today is associated with Western esoteric and occultist literature. Scholars argue that Platonic Orientalists in Roman times and in Renaissance Europe imagined a primordial, pure wisdom that originates in the East (variously Egypt, Mesopotamia, and as far east as India) and defined themselves in terms of this imaginary Eastern Other. This wisdom is held to reveal the divine Mind and the path of personal salvation. Zlatko Plese’s notion of Platonist Orientalism is similar to Platonic Orientalism but focuses on a small number of Roman philosophers who held that the wisdom traditions of Plato and of the “barbarians” were compatible and shared a common source.

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Scholars use this term usually to describe Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices that deal with the economic activities of an (Oriental) Other. In some cases, Orientalists imagine those activities as being backward or otherwise deficient; in other cases, they are perceived to be a threat to “Our” economic well-being. Or, again, economic Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices may be used to force the Other into subservience to Western economic values, systems, and practices. A very few scholars use the terms either Market Orientalism or Financial Orientalism to describe the same phenomena.