‘Philosophy to the glory of God’

A major impetus for Arabic science was the patronage of the Abbasidcaliphate (758–1258), centered in Baghdad. Early Abbasid rulers,such as Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786–809) and his successorAbū Jaʿfar Abdullāh al-Ma’mūn (ruled813–833), were significant patrons of Arabic science. The formerfounded the Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom), whichcommissioned translations of major works by Aristotle, Galen, and manyPersian and Indian scholars into Arabic. It was cosmopolitan in itsoutlook, employing astronomers, mathematicians, and physicians fromabroad, including Indian mathematicians and Nestorian (Christian)astronomers. Throughout the Arabic world, public libraries attached tomosques provided access to a vast compendium of knowledge, whichspread Islam, Greek philosophy, and Arabic science. The use of acommon language (Arabic), as well as common religious and politicalinstitutions and flourishing trade relations encouraged the spread ofscientific ideas throughout the empire. Some of this transmission wasinformal, e.g., correspondence between like-minded people (see Dhanani2002), some formal, e.g., in hospitals where students learned aboutmedicine in a practical, master-apprentice setting, and inastronomical observatories and academies. The decline and fall of theAbbasid caliphate dealt a blow to Arabic science, but it remainsunclear why it ultimately stagnated, and why it did not experiencesomething analogous to the scientific revolution in WesternEurope.

Philosophy of religion - Wikipedia

Leo Tolstoy: Religious Philosophy of Leo Tolstoy

Introducing the philosophy of religion: Questions …

Natural philosophers, such as Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, RobertHooke, and Robert Boyle, sometimes appealed to supernatural agents intheir natural philosophy (which we now call “science”).Still, overall there was a tendency to favor naturalistic explanationsin natural philosophy. This preference for naturalistic causes mayhave been encouraged by past successes of naturalistic explanations,leading authors such as Paul Draper (2005) to argue that the successof methodological naturalism could be evidence for ontologicalnaturalism. Explicit methodological naturalism arose in thenineteenth century with the X-club, a lobby group for theprofessionalization of science founded in 1864 by Thomas Huxley andfriends, which aimed to promote a science that would be free fromreligious dogmas. The X-club may have been in part motivated by thedesire to remove competition by amateur-clergymen scientists in thefield of science, and thus to open up the field to full-timeprofessionals (Garwood 2008).

Philosophy of Religion - InterVarsity Press

God has provided for the restoration of His image in man through the person and work of Jesus Christ. This restoration is not accomplished by the fanning of a supposed inborn "spark of divinity" in the individual, as religious liberalism has traditionally maintained, but by the giving of a new nature. "If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature [i.e., creation]: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new" (II Cor. 5:17).

Discussion on the theology / religious philosophy of Leo Tolstoy (on a rational account of God)
Logic, Reality, and God; Continental Philosophy of Religion; Feminism and ..

Does the Philosophy of Religion answer or ask the question of ..

Identify the apophatic way or via negativa
Identify the apophatic way or via negativa
Discuss the cataphatic way or via positiva
Philosophy of language investigates what words actually mean and can we actually assign a meaning to a specific word?
In philosophy of religion 'religious language' is very important, everyday words can take on different meaning when used in specific contexts
This means that statements are made which imply the opposite to be false - Jesus is alive today, God is the greatest
Some religious language can be understood in terms of truth-claims
Everyday phrases and statements have multiple meanings - I literally died
Apophatic or negative is a way of speaking about what God is not
Similarly Rabbi Moses Maimonides postulated that if we say what God is not then we can get closer to what he actually is - but we must be careful with using literal language
The christian Platonist Pseudo-Dionysius followed this negative method when speaking about God - we cannot comprehend God using the senses or reason, it is a mystery - we will only end up with an idea of God that is limited
The apophatic way considers words we assign to describe God as finite or too small - the language implies limitations - Shepard, judge etc - we conjure up an image of what we perceive to be a Shepard or a judge - too limited
In groups discuss whether is it possible to talk about God given the limitations of language?


Religion and Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

C. Stephen Evans (PhD, Yale) is University Professor of Philosophy and the Humanities at Baylor University. He previously taught in the philosophy departments at Calvin College, St. Olaf College, and Wheaton College. He has published several books, including Kierkegaard: An Introduction, Natural Signs and Knowledge of God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments, God and Moral Obligation, Why Christian Faith Still Makes Sense, and Philosophy of Religion.

Philosophy of Religion - Mel Thompson

General Preface
Preface to the Second Edition

1. What Is Philosophy of Religion?
Philosophy of Religion and Other Disciplines
Philosophy of Religion and Philosophy
Can Thinking About Religion Be Neutral?
Critical Dialogue

2. The Theistic God: The Project of Natural Theology
Concepts of God
The Theistic Concept of God
A Case Study: Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom
The Problem of Religious Language
Natural Theology
Proofs of God?s Existence

3. Classical Arguments for God's Existence
Ontological Arguments
Cosmological Arguments
Teleological Arguments
Moral Arguments
Conclusions: The Value of Theistic Argument

4. Religious Experience
Types of Religious Experience
Two Models for Understanding Experience
Experience of God as Direct and Mediated
Are Religious Experiences Veridical?
Checking Experiential Claims

5. Special Acts of God: Revelation and Miracles
Special Acts
Theories of Revelation
Is the Traditional View Defensible?
What Is a Miracle?
Is It Reasonable to Believe in Miracles?
Can a Revelation Have Special Authority?

6. Religion, Modernity and Science
Modernity and Religious Belief
Do the Natural Sciences Undermine Religious Belief?
Objections from the Social Sciences
Religious Uses of Modern Atheism?

7. The Problem of Evil
Types of Evil, Versions of the Problem, and Types of Response
The Logical Form of the Problem
The Evidential Form of the Problem
Horrendous Evils and the Problem of Hell
Divine Hiddenness

8. Faith(s) and Reason
Faith: Subjectivity in Religious Arguments
The Evidentialist Challenge to Religious Belief
Reformed Epistemology
The Place of Subjectivity in Forming Beliefs
Interpretive Judgments and the Nature of a Cumulative Case
Can Faith Be Certain?
Faith and Doubt: Can Religious Faith Be Tested?
What Is Faith?
Could One Religion Be True?

Further Reading