What is also recognized is the importance of widespread education.

A number of contemporary theorists have drawn on Marxian insights and categories of analysis - an influence most evident in work on dependency and the world capitalist system (Viotti, P.

The value of the resource is dependent on global demand.

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Modernization vs. Dependency Theory Essay - 566 Words

In a manner similar to other conceptions of modernization, Smelser emphasizes four major changes: from simple to complex technology, from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture, from rural to urban populations, and, most important, from animal and human power to inanimate power and industrialization.

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Parsons’s later theoretical work (1964) also combines these perspectives in a neo-evolutionist modernization theory that treats societies as self-regulated structural functional wholes in which the main processes of change are social differentiation and the discovery (or acquisition through diffusion) of certain ”evolutionary universals” such as bureaucratic organizations and money markets.

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Economic Development Theory, Sub-Saharan Africa, …

McClelland (1961) felt that prevalence of individuals with the psychological trait of high ”need for achievement” was the key to entrepreneurial activity and modernization of society.

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In what is called the “underdevelopment trap,” the essential process to post-agrarian societies of the division of labor is obstructed when there is insufficient capacity or education to allow a majority of the population to specialize (Berthelemy, 2006; Rodriquez-Clare, 1995).

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Based on the confidence in the new models, as well as the combined policy powerhouses of Reagan (U.S.) and Thatcher (U.K), the global financial institutions began granting loans on the condition of structural readjustments to meet the criteria of a “proper capitalist state,” even if that meant diverting funds from indigenous social programs and reducing spending below population dependencies.

PPT – Modernization, Development Theory, and its …

In general, modernization theorists are concerned with economic growth within societies as indicated, for example, by measures of gross national product.

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According to Rostow’s analysis, modernization takes place in a series of five stages: 1) traditional societies eventually start to develop 2) preconditions for growth, such as increased education, manufacturing, and other forms of capital development.

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In a similar vein, Inkeles and Smith (1974) used interview data from six societies to generate a set of personality traits by which they defined ”modern man.” They felt that the prevalence of individual modernity in society was determined by such factors as education and factory experience and that individual modernity contributed to the modernization of society.