Genetic enhancement and sport - Medicine and Health …

The idea that PEDs are objectionable because of possible risks--even despite the hard fact that those risks are rather low--is a failure to consider what sports are: an attempt toaccomplish some difficult physical task or tasks as best possible. If the means involve risk--for example, a ball carrier in football must be tackled to stop his progress, creatingrisk for both the carrier and the tackler--then that risk is simply a part of the sport. Athletes, probably from as early as ever there was athletic competition of even the crudest sort inpre-history, have sought all means that will enable them to perform better. Many of those means have involved risk, as simple physical training itself necessarily does. But the athlete whorefuses to do, for example, weight training may reduce his risk of injury, but he also greatly reduces his ability to compete in his sport, and probably would be unable to continueparticipating in it at all. The long and short of it is playing the game means taking the risks; avoiding the risks means avoiding the game.

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There is simply no plausible case, ethical or practical, to be made for prohibiting PED use, not in law, not in sports-organization codes. The strong tendency to regulate or banarises largely from old instincts, not reason, which makes discussion on the issues difficult, for it has been famously said that reason will never get someone out of a position thatreason never got him into in the first place.

Ethical Issues in Human Enhancement

Those awake and paying attention will of course notice that the comment used here from Dr. Yesalis is the same one quoted about "unnaturalness". That is for the very good reason thatthe "unfairness" argument is just the "unnaturalness" argument in a different clown suit. If there is an unfairness about PED use, it is that owing to their tabu status, they are notequally available to any who might want them. Those who are willing to risk detection or opprobrium can obtain whatever advantage they may or may not confer in a given sport, while thoseequally interested but cowed by the regulatory and acceptability climate are denied whatever those gains might or might not be. Athletes cannot make choices on the merits as they perceivethem.

Rebecca Roache [Published in New Waves in Applied Ethics, eds
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Adolescent use of PEDs is low, circa 1.5%, and declining. Numerous scientific studies, looking at data from thousands or tens of thousands of adolescents, show three chief reasons for PEDuse, none of which are in any way related to imitating professional athletes. Those reasons are, first, for boys to develop muscles, which they think makes them more attractive togirls; second, to excel at some organized school sport, mainly football but also weight-lifting and wrestling; and third because of some psychological problems preceding and in factcausing the PED use, notably "muscle dysmorphia", which is essentially "reverse anorexia", or else "Jessor's problem-behavior syndrome", a technical name for a "bad-boy" spectrum ofhigh-risk, often anti-social behaviors that includes substance abuse, typically with multiple substances. In the psychological cases, the use is not a cause of the problems but an effect, asymptom.

Nov 18, 2014 · So, we understand now why fighting should not be in the sport


That leads to the ancillary question of "coercion". As the ethicists all point out, no one has a "right" to play a professional sport. Would-be players are all "coerced" by each andevery one of the intrinsic requirements, meaning those needful to perform as best one can. Pro athletes, including ball players, are often urged to "play through pain", and most are proudthat they do so. Or, if the top performers have rigorous, even brutal, workout regimens--as so many do--does that "coerce" all other players to identically brutal workouts? Each playerdoes what he thinks is necessary to achieve and maintain the level of performance that he finds proper. There is no logical or ethical distinction between--just for example--killer workoutsand PEDs. Each is what that athlete finds appropriate or necessary.

Jan 09, 2017 · 5 posts published by predatorvsacademator during January 2017

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We need not examine the medical risks to adolescents from PED use: everyone agrees that they are substantial and potentially grave. The real question is whether PED use by professionalathletes has any causative effect on their use by adolescents.