Henry David Thoreau - Wikipedia

"Action from principle, the perception and the performanceof right, changes things and relations; it is essentially revolutionary."33When unjust laws exist, there are three choices: 1) obey them,2) obey them while working to change them, or 3) transgress themat once. Yet the evil resulting from breaking an unjust law isthe fault of the government. Thoreau wondered why government resistsreform. "Why does it always crucify Christ, and excommunicateCopernicus and Luther, and pronounce Washington and Franklin rebels?"34Thoreau advised us to let minor injustices pass if the remedyis worse than the evil.

Civil Disobedience (Thoreau) - Wikipedia

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Excessively Simple: Thoreau’s Argument For Self …

In 1832 Emerson heard the "very good views" of Channingat a peace meeting. Emerson criticized the Mexican War, whichhe felt was caused chiefly by the interests of the slave states,and he prophesied that there would be retribution for the nationjust as there is for any private felon. In a discussion with ThomasCarlyle at Stonehenge a few years later, Emerson put forward thepacifist philosophy of nonresistance and non-cooperation withgovernments which institutionalize violence as an indigenous Americanconviction; this idea was championed by the abolitionist WilliamLloyd Garrison and others who would not compromise on this pointas Channing had. Emerson gave one or two anecdotes, which madean impression on Carlyle, and concluded, "'Tis certain asGod liveth, the gun that does not need another gun, the law oflove and justice alone, can effect a clean revolution."11

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Ralph Waldo Emerson was born on May 25, 1803 in Boston, Massachusettsas the son of a Unitarian minister. He graduated from HarvardCollege in 1821. Emerson married in 1829, but his wife died lessthan a year and a half later. At this point he doubted his beliefsand profession as a minister, and he decided to resign, statingthat it was because of the Eucharist. In 1832 he went to Europe,where he met such noteworthies as Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Carlyle.

Jul 20, 2015 · 'First Men On The Moon' by J. Patrick Lewis "That afternoon in mid-July, Two pilgrims watched from distant space …
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Henry David Thoreau | Biography & Works | …

A peaceful nation is protected by its spiritual power becauseeveryone is its friend. In individual cases it is extremely rarethat a person of peace ever attracts violence. Yet Emerson addedthat the wise do not decide in advance how to respond, but theyfollow the guidance of Nature and God.

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For Emerson the soul transcends all conflict and has no enemies;soldiers he considered to be ridiculous. War is "abhorrentto all right reason" and against human progress. From theperspective of spiritual oneness he spoke of "the blazingtruth that he who kills his brother commits suicide." Helooked at the Civil War as a retribution to purge the nation ofthe evil of slavery, and he detested the lack of freedom duringthe war. In 1865 he vowed that if martial law came to Concord,he would disobey it or move elsewhere. He foresaw "that dreamof good men not yet come to pass, an International Congress."Prophetic also was this: "As if the earth, water, gases,lightning and caloric had not a million energies, the discoveryof any one of which could change the art of war again, and putan end to war by the exterminating forces man can apply."12

Expect Great Things: The Life and Search of Henry …

Peace Congresses were held at Brussels in 1848, at Paris in1849, at Frankfort in 1850, at London again in 1851, and at Edinburghin 1853. Two fugitive slaves joined the large American Peace Societydelegation to the World Peace Congress in Paris in 1849. In hisaddress at Paris the great novelist Victor Hugo urged organizingpeace by using arbitration, proportionate and simultaneous disarmament,and a Congress of Nations. Hugo prophetically believed that cooperationbetween the United States and a union of European nations couldlead the world to peace. Between 1842 and 1854 efforts to getnations to stipulate with each other that they would use arbitrationinstead of war to settle disagreements were led by Richard Cobdenand Henry Richard in England and by Judge William Jay in the UnitedStates. In 1849 Cobden proposed in the House of Commons that theBritish government pursue this, but it was defeated 176-79.