Hobbes, Thomas: Moral and Political Philosophy | …

Locke's involvement with this controversial political figure led to a period of self-imposed exile in Holland during the 1680s, but after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 he held several minor governmental offices.

Thomas Hobbes > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy

JOHN LOCKE and the NATURAL LAW and NATURAL RIGHTS TRADITION Steven Forde, University of North Texas


In advocating a kind of education that made people who think forthemselves, Locke was preparing people to effectively make decisionsin their own lives—to engage in individual self-government—and to participate in the government of their country. TheConduct reveals the connections Locke sees between reason, freedom andmorality. Reason is required for good self-government because reasoninsofar as it is free from partiality, intolerance and passion andable to question authority leads to fair judgment and action. We thushave a responsibility to cultivate reason in order to avoid the moralfailings of passion, partiality and so forth (Grant and Tarcov 1996,xii). This is, in Tarcov’s phrase, Locke’s education forliberty.

BRIA 20 2 c Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau …

In addition to these and similar religious arguments, Locke givesthree reasons that are more philosophical in nature for barringgovernments from using force to encourage people to adopt religiousbeliefs (Works 6:10–12). First, he argues that the careof men's souls has not been committed to the magistrate by either Godor the consent of men. This argument resonates with the structure ofargument used so often in the Two Treatises to establish thenatural freedom and equality of mankind. There is no command in theBible telling magistrates to bring people to the true faith and peoplecould not consent to such a goal for government because it is notpossible for people, at will, to believe what the magistrate tellsthem to believe. Their beliefs are a function of what they think istrue, not what they will. Locke's second argument is that since thepower of the government is only force, while true religion consists ofgenuine inward persuasion of the mind, force is incapable of bringingpeople to the true religion. Locke's third argument is that even ifthe magistrate could change people's minds, a situation where everyoneaccepted the magistrate's religion would not bring more people to thetrue religion. Many of the magistrates of the world believe religionsthat are false.

My Philosopher: Thomas Hobbes | Media Ethics in the …

So, in respect to the crucial question of how we are to know whether arevelation is genuine, we are supposed to use reason and the canons ofprobability to judge. Locke claims that if the boundaries betweenfaith and reason are not clearly marked, then there will be no placefor reason in religion and one then gets all the “extravagantOpinions and Ceremonies, that are to be found in the religions of theworld…” (IV. XVIII. 11. p. 696).

Thomas Hobbes or John Locke? | Yahoo Answers

We turn now to Locke’s political writings. (See theentry on , which focuses on five topics (the state of nature, natural law, property,consent and toleration) and goes into these topics in more depth than ispossible in a general account and provides much useful information onthe debates about them.)

philosophy of Hobbes and Locke, ..

Locke believed that it was important that the legislative powercontain an assembly of elected representatives, but as we have seenthe legislative power could contain monarchical and aristocraticelements as well. Locke believed the people had the freedom to created“mixed” constitutions that utilize all of these. For thatreason, Locke’s theory of separation of powers does not dictateone particular type of constitution and does not preclude unelectedofficials from having part of the legislative power. Locke was moreconcerned that the people have representatives with sufficient powerto block attacks on their liberty and attempts to tax them withoutjustification. This is important because Locke also affirms that thecommunity remains the real supreme power throughout. The people retainthe right to “remove or alter” the legislative power(Two Treatises 2.149). This can happen for a variety ofreasons. The entire society can be dissolved by a successful foreigninvasion (2.211), but Locke is more interested in describing theoccasions when the people take power back from the government to whichthey have entrusted it. If the rule of law is ignored, if therepresentatives of the people are prevented from assembling, if themechanisms of election are altered without popular consent, or if thepeople are handed over to a foreign power, then they can take backtheir original authority and overthrow the government(2.212–17). They can also rebel if the government attempts totake away their rights (2.222). Locke thinks this is justifiable sinceoppressed people will likely rebel anyway and those who are notoppressed will be unlikely to rebel. Moreover, the threat of possiblerebellion makes tyranny less likely to start with (2.224–6). Forall these reasons, while there are a variety of legitimateconstitutional forms, the delegation of power under any constitutionis understood to be conditional.