History of Women in Sports - Elmira College
History of Sports Massage • Massage School Notes
Texas high school and college sports began in the unregulated environment of the nineteenth century, and football soon proved to be king at all levels of competition. Texas high school players ultimately achieved a reputation that brought college recruiters from throughout the nation. During the twentieth century, big-time college sports came under the umbrellas of the SWC and the NCAA, while other schools formed their own conferences. The UIL attempted to control sports at the high school level, with mixed results. The biggest issues facing all these sports programs were academic integrity, racial integration, and gender equity, in that order. During the early years, high school football teams were often composed of semiprofessionals who represented their home town or neighborhood, with few if any high school students in the lineups. The UIL attempted to change that and provide fair competition for legitimate students. They faced a long struggle against overage students, questionable scholastic records, and all-out recruiting battles between towns. The UIL grew out of the 1913 merger of two organizations, and operated as part of the University of Texas at Austin. In 1919, the UIL inserted the word "white" in its membership standards. The following year black teachers founded the Texas Interscholastic League of Colored Schools. In 1923 the TILCS came under the authority of Prairie View A&M College, thereby becoming the Prairie View Interscholastic League. By 1951 the UIL offered state championships in boy's track, football, basketball, baseball, and golf and in girl's basketball. The PVIL staged state championship games in football, basketball, baseball, and track. At its peak, the UIL enrolled 6,000 schools, the PVIL 500. After a protracted struggle, the UIL dropped the color barrier in 1965, and the PVIL ceased operations four years later. Under the leadership of , Rodney Kidd, Rhea Williams, and Bailey Marshall, the UIL grew to national prominence; today it enrolls approximately 1,100 schools and sponsors nine sports each for boys and girls, in addition to contests in other educational and cultural endeavors such as music.
Our History – Sports & Fitness Insurance Corporation
introduced gymnastics to Texas in the mid-nineteenth century through their turnvereins (gymnastics clubs). These organizations also provided community services such as volunteer fire companies and entertained both the public and themselves with elaborate gymnastic exhibitions. However, later generations of German Texans, though they enjoyed the social benefits of the turnvereins, lost interest in gymnastics, and many of the clubs took up bowling, which was already popular among other German-Texan organizations. They introduced nine-pin , which continues in isolated Texas turnvereins today, but some of the group went on to organize the Texas Ten Pin League, which still regulates mainstream bowling in Texas. Like the turnvereins, the , a gymnastic club brought by to the state, served a variety of other functions in the Czech communities. Unlike the turners, the sokols have remained true to their original mission and are engaged in gymnastics today. German Texans also formed Schützenvereine or shooting clubs, which sponsored the most highly organized of the many shooting contests around the state. By midcentury almost every community had some sort of gun club. Most held annual shooting tournaments and regularly scheduled matches against neighboring towns.