# The History of Mathematics - An Introduction.

Mathematics education policies and programs for U.S. public schoolshave never been more contentious than they were during the decade ofthe1990s. The immediate cause of the math wars of the 90s was theintroductionand widespread distribution of new math textbooks with radicallydiminishedcontent, and a dearth of basic skills. This led to organized parentalrebellionsand criticisms of the new math curricula by mathematicians and otherprofessionals.

## The Historical Roots of Elementary Mathematics.

### Buy A History of Greek Mathematics, Vol

addressed a wide variety of educationissues,including specific shortcomings in mathematics education. Regardingremedialmathematics instruction, the report found that:

### Greek Mathematics - The Story of Mathematics

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics released in 1980. The report called for new directions inmathematicseducation which would later be codified in 1989 in the form of nationalstandards. recommended that problemsolvingbe the focus of school mathematics in the 1980s, along with new ways ofteaching. The report asserted that "Requiring complete mastery ofskillsbefore allowing participation in challenging problem solving iscounterproductive," and "Difficulty with paper-and-pencil computation should notinterferewith the learning of problem-solving strategies." Technology would makeproblem solving available to students without basic skills. Accordingtothe report, "All students should have access to calculators andincreasinglyto computers throughout their school mathematics program." Thisincludedcalculators "for use in elementary and secondary school classrooms."Thereport also warned, "It is dangerous to assume that skills from one erawill suffice for another," and called for "decreased emphasis on suchactivitiesas...performing paper and pencil calculations with numbers of more thantwo digits." This would be possible because "The use of calculators hasradically reduced the demand for some paper-and-pencil techniques." Thereport also recommended that "Team efforts in problem solving should becommon place in elementary school classrooms," and encouraged "the useof manipulatives, where suited, to illustrate or develop a concept orskill." also called for "a wider range of measures thanconventionaltesting." All of these directions would later become issues ofcontentionin the math wars of the 1990s.^{47}

## Some History Topics about Greek mathematics

is the union of the Greek (same or equal) and (legs) and refers to two sides of a object as being the same length, as in isosceles triangles and isosceles . The root shows up in many scientific and mathematical words such as isometry (same measure), and isomorphic (same shape). Isobar is used both in chemistry (two atoms with equal atomic weight) and in meterology (lines connecting points of equal barometric pressure).

## Full List of Greek Mathematicians in our ..

Progressivists drew support from the findings of psychologist EdwardL. Thorndike. Thorndike conducted a series of experiments beginning in1901 that cast doubt on the value of mental discipline and thepossibilityof transfer of training from one activity to another. These findingswereused to challenge the justification for teaching mathematics as a formof mental discipline and contributed to the view that any mathematicseducationshould be for purely utilitarian purposes.^{10} Thorndikestressedthe importance of creating many "bonds" through repeated practice andchampioneda stimulus-response method of learning. This led to the fragmentationofarithmetic and the avoidance of teaching closely related ideas tooclosein time, for fear of establishing incorrect bonds. According to onewriter,"For good or for ill, it was Thorndike who dealt the final blow to the'science of arithmetic.'"^{11}