Within the year, the Cold War was under way.

Saddam accepted American and British assistance in much the same spirit as he had accepted that from the French, Soviets and other foreigners: using the substance of this aid without trusting the motives of its providers. The late 1980s actually saw a divergence of interests between the interests of Iraq's benefactors – American, European and Soviet – and those of Saddam's regime. In the context of perestroika and détente Moscow and Washington collaborated on the UN ceasefire resolution (SCR619) which ended the Iran-Iraq war in August 1988, and external powers had a vested interest in seeing stability in a region of crucial geopolitical and economic importance. However, Saddam saw Iraq as a regional superpower which had the right to exercise hegemony over the Arab world. His ambitions, combined with Iraq's post-war debt of over $80 billion, led to the invasion and annexation of Kuwait in August 1990. This action isolated Iraq from global opinion, being both an unprovoked act of aggression and a threat to the economic and energy interests of the superpowers, the European states and indeed the wider world. What was worse for Saddam was that the Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, abandoned his predecessors' traditional solidarity with 'progressive' Third World states for détente with Washington, so that when Iraq faced the US-led coalition in the war of January-March 1991 it was entirely alone. While the USA, the USSR, France, Britain and other powers had miscalculated in their dealings with Iraq prior to August 1990, Saddam also blundered in believing that he could escape the diplomatic, financial and military consequences of conquering a country with 10 per cent of the world's identified oil reserves. ()

New types of bureaucrats ran the big businesses of postwar America.

Historians debate this question, too, as well as the origins of the Cold War.

A History of American Foreign Policy during the Cold War

Charles Gallagher ('Pro Patria, Pro Deo: The United States and the Vatican in Cold War Yugoslavia, 1945-1950') provides an example of such activity, putting the spotlight on evidence of secret diplomacy between the USA and the Vatican in Tito's Yugoslav republic. The 'flowering of furtive diplomatic contact' between the Vatican and the USA was nowhere more prevalent than in Yugoslavia, he asserts where, in 1945, Tito initiated a period of brutal repression against the Catholic Church.(p. 118) In order to stem this persecution, the Vatican aimed to establish a 'cosy relationship' with the USA and appointed prominent American prelates to key diplomatic posts behind the Iron Curtain. (p. 119) The relationship became so close that the Vatican secretly provided the Americans with intelligence material, in return for official Vatican correspondence being sent from Belgrade in the US diplomatic pouch.

American History Essays: Foreign Policy Usa - During Cold War

Kirby ('Harry Truman's Religious Legacy: The Holy Alliance, Containment and the Cold War') examines the nature of the relationship between the Vatican and Truman, focussing on the value of religion in the fields of propaganda and psychological warfare. She makes the case that the defence of Western civilisation and the defence of Christianity became linked in the minds of people in general, and also in the minds of their leaders, taking on the characteristics of a crusade. She quotes Truman in 1945: '. I believe honestly - that Almighty God intends us to assume the leadership which he intended us to assume in 1920, and which we refused'. (quoted on p. 86) One of the main attributes of Kirby's essay is that it gets down to the nitty-gritty of what went on behind closed doors, giving examples of precisely how governments believed they could manipulate religion. She quotes a discussion that took place on the subject of the Catholic Church within the British Foreign Office's Russia Committee in 1946. Faced with the question of how publicly Britain should ally herself with the Vatican, the view was that Britain should keep her distance, while at the same time assisting the Church to deploy its influence by 'inconspicuous means'.(p. 99) In addition, the British representative at the Vatican would feed information about communist activities to the Holy See. Conversely, the Americans accepted the Vatican's offer to share information from its 'world-wide intelligence sources'. (p. 86) The Cold War was largely an intelligence war and, as Kirby demonstrates, it is in this murky world that researchers must look for evidence of manipulation by and co-operation between Church and state.

Finally, the government spent large amounts of money by providing loans, fighting the Cold War, and funding social programs.
The focus of the Cold War now shifted to the so-called Third World, where the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) represented U.S.

US Policies During the Cold War Flashcards | Quizlet

Despite the many misguided programs promoted by the United States, American foreign policy during the Cold War contributed to the spread of four basic ideas that, on the whole, enhanced global peace and prosperity. These ideas were and . These ideas were not unique to the United States or the post-1945 years. They were empowered internationally, however, by an American government with global capabilities and commitments that knew few previous historical parallels. Presidents as diverse as Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, and George H.W. Bush returned repeatedly to these ideas. Policy planners relied on them, and the “lessons” from their applications in the early Cold War. The ideas that shaped the years after 1945 acquired a staying power that they still have not lost. The Cold War was an ideological struggle with strong ideological legacies that are both positive and negative.

Discover how the Cold War turned hot for the first time, on the Korean peninsula in the early 1950s.

How Did the Cold War Affect U.S. Foreign Policy? | Synonym

The tensions that would later grow into the Cold War became evident as early as 1943, when the "Big Three" allied leaders—American President , British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin— to coordinate strategy.

U.S.-Latin American Relations During the Cold War - …

US involvement in Latin American affairs during the Cold War period was extraordinarily deep and, according to most scholars, generally malicious. Successive administrations in Washington involved themselves in the domestic affairs of every Latin American state, attempting either to strengthen cooperative governments or to weaken ones that demonstrated geopolitical independence. While repeated interventions, in themselves, suggest that the US government may not have used its power responsibly, the greater problem is that fears about political reliability consistently trumped concerns about democracy, human rights, and economic development. These fears led policymakers in Washington to embrace a long list of brutal dictators and to engage in covert backing for insurgent groups and military cabals dedicated to overthrowing established governments. There are exceptions to this unpleasant history, but periods of genuine respect in Washington for Latin American independence were few and far between. Many scholars have suggested that Cold War concerns about the spread of communism in the region alone drove US policy, especially in the wake of Cuba’s alignment with the Soviet Union. Others have argued that, while Cuba was deeply troubling, the United States operated simply as a traditional imperial state, attempting to ensure it retained political and economic control over its weaker neighbors. A number of scholars have explored responses to US influence to explain how Latin Americans negotiated with, mitigated the influence of, or even manipulated Washington’s power. This idea is often expanded beyond discussions of US political, military, or economic engagement to focus on cultural penetration and to explain that the importation of items such as films, music, and even cartoons operated alongside other types of imperialism. These last types of studies, which look more intently at Latin American societies than at US government decision-making, are just one piece of the scholarship on the Cold War in Latin America. Because of the importance of the Cold War in Latin America and its impact on the totality of political, economic, social, and cultural developments, it may be possible to argue that essentially any book written about Latin America from the end of World War II to the late 1980s might be considered Cold War history. Because exploring the totality of that literature is not possible or practical in one essay, this bibliography will focus on the substantial scholarship that explores concrete US efforts to fight the Cold War in the region, and the responses to those efforts. It will consider works specifically part of the subfield of US–Latin American relations, which is part of the larger history of US international history. Said differently, if only for practical purposes, this bibliography will try to draw a distinction between scholarship on the internal Cold War in Latin America and scholarship on US–Latin American relations during the Cold War period.