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In 296 Diocletian extended the Christian persecution to the Manichaeans, resulting in numerous martyrs in Egypt and North Africa. Although Persian King Narseh (r. 293-302) lost Mesopotamia and western provinces to Rome after he was defeated by Galerius, he left the Manichaeans in peace. In 303 Hormizd II executed Innai, and the next four Manichaean leaders were also killed. In the fourth century Manichaeism spread throughout the Roman empire. Two Christians, Archelaus in his and Alexander of Lycopolis in his “Of the Manichaeans,” treated Manichaeism as a Christian heresy instead of a new religion because Mani acknowledged Jesus as the Christ. In 372 Valentinian I prohibited all meetings, and Augustine adopted the faith for a decade until Christians urged Theodosius I to take away their civil rights in 381; the next year he decreed Manichaean elders put to death, and in 383 Theodosius banished all Manichaeans. Exile was again decreed by Valentinian II, and in Rome their property was confiscated in 389.

The Greeks lost their first battle against the Persians.

“The Second Persian Invasion” The Ancient World; A social and Cultural History.
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The Greeks indeed often used the term “Mede” to refer to Persians.

Marw, Bactria, and Sogdiana were all centres ofHellenism. The Saka conquest of Bactria checked, but did not destroythis Hellenic element. Meanwhile the western end of the route also hadits vicissitudes. There the chief barrier between the Greek andoriental world was Parthia which was encroaching upon the Seleuciddominions and about 150 B.C. absorbed Mesopotamia. But Parthian advancewas checked. Not long after the invasion of Mesopotamia came the Sakapenetration of the eastern provinces. On the other hand the Seleucidmonarchy ceased to be a serious obstacle when in 129 B.C. AntiochusSidetes was defeated and slain by the Parthians, though they were notable to follow up this victory effectively because the Sakas werealready menacing their eastern frontier. This defeat left Syria tooweak to defend herself from foes gathering round and only waiting foran opportunity to seize her territory. Already Arab tribes wereencroaching on the eastern parts of Syria and a native dynasty atEdessa had declared its independence in I32, whilst the whole countrywas subject to incursions of Arab tribes who before long began preyingoil Parthia as well. Thus Mesopotamia became a neutral territorycovered by minor native states over which neither the Seleucid king atAntioch nor the King of Parthia could exercise control.

Greek resistance to the persian invasion | Jelks & White

Our main interest here is with the overlandroute between the Roman Empire and the Far East. That route led fromthe Syrian border to Marw, a city founded by Antiochus I (280-240 B.C.)as a Greek colony with surrounding agricultural settlements, allpredominantly Greek, both city and rural area frequently recruited byfresh Greek colonists. Under the Parthian kings this became a martwhere Roman and Chinese trade met. At the time of the Arab conquest andfor long afterwards this was a scene of great prosperity, producingsilk and fine cotton when those materials were still rare and costly inthe Roman Empire. Before that conquest the western quarter or rabad hadmuch increased in population, and in early Arab times the main businesspart of the city had removed to this quarter. To Marw the la PersianKing Yazdegird III fled on his defeat and there he was overtaken by theArabs in 651 and killed at a mill in the village of Raziq closeby. The Christian (Nestorian) bishop took the deceased monarch's bodyto Pa-i-Baban and buried it there (Tabari, , i, 2881), anincident suggesting that the Nestorians formed an important element inthe city. There was a great Nestorian monastery at Masergasan north ofthe quarter known later as Sultan-Qal'a, adjoining Rabad (Tabari, .,ii, 1925). Marw seems to have been an outpost of Hellenism, with aconsiderable proportion of Christians, both Nestorians andMonophysites, in its population, no doubt largely swelled bythe many captives taken by Khusraw II from the Romans and sent far eastfor safe custody.

The Persians second attempt for an invasion was located at Marathon in Greece in 490 BC.
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The second Persian invasion of Greece was a direct, ..

The Emperor Augustus recognized the Euphratesfrontier and allowed the Arab states to remain without interference,and so matters continued until the accession of Trajan, though thetrade route through Mesopotamia was practically closed because theParthians were unable to control the tribesmen along the border. Trajandecided to carry Roman authority farther east and to bring thedisordered border lands into a more satisfactory condition, and toeffect this in A.D. 115 conquered Mesopotamia and made it a Romanprovince. The following year he invaded Parthia, advanced to theTigris, occupied Adiabene in northern Mesopotamia and made it aprovince under the name of Assyria, took Seleucia the chief Greekcolony on the Tigris and the Parthian capital Ctesiphon Close by, andwent on as far as the mouth of the Tigris, but was called back by thenews that Mesopotamia in his rear had revolted. That revolt he putdown, burning Seleucia and Edessa, but died on 8th August, 117. Hispolicy was reversed by his successor Hadrian, who gave back Mesopotamiaand Assyria and resumed the Euphrates frontier, whilst Armenia whichhad also been annexed ceased to be a Roman province but remained avassal state.

The first Persian invasion of ..

After Thermopylae, all of Boeotia and Attica fell to the , who captured and burnt Athens. However, a larger Allied army fortified the narrow Isthmus of Corinth, protecting the Peloponnesus from Persian conquest. Both sides thus sought out a naval victory which might decisively alter the course of the war. The Athenian general Themistocles succeeded in luring the Persian navy into the narrow Straits of Salamis, where the huge number of Persian ships became disorganised, and were soundly beaten by the . The Allied victory at Salamis prevented a quick conclusion to the invasion, and fearing becoming trapped in Europe, Xerxes retreated to Asia leaving his general Mardonius to finish the conquest with the elite of the .

Greco-Persian Wars: Xerxes' Invasion | HistoryNet

Grand Vizier Mebodes presented the will of Kavad that made Khusrau I (r. 531-79) king of kings. Khusrau, also known as Khosrow or as Noshirwan or Anushirwan in the east, has been acclaimed as the greatest of Persian monarchs; but because of an attempt to place his brother Zames on the throne, he began his reign by putting to death all his brothers and their sons except one son of Zames named Kavad, who escaped. He also executed Mazdak and one hundred thousand of his followers. Khusrau organized the Sasanian empire into four regional satrapies: Khurasan and Kirman in the east, Fars and Khuzistan in the south, Iraq and Mesopotamia in the west, and Armenia and Azerbaijan in the north.