Gender Differences Among Children With DSM-IV …

Catharine MacKinnon develops her theory of gender as a theory ofsexuality. Very roughly: the social meaning of sex (gender) is createdby sexual objectification of women whereby women are viewed andtreated as objects for satisfying men's desires (MacKinnon1989). Masculinity is defined as sexual dominance, femininity assexual submissiveness: genders are “created through theeroticization of dominance and submission. The man/woman differenceand the dominance/submission dynamic define each other. This is thesocial meaning of sex” (MacKinnon 1989, 113). For MacKinnon,gender is constitutively constructed: in defining genders (ormasculinity and femininity) we must make reference to social factors(see Haslanger 1995, 98). In particular, we must make reference to theposition one occupies in the sexualised dominance/submission dynamic:men occupy the sexually dominant position, women the sexuallysubmissive one. As a result, genders are by definitionhierarchical and this hierarchy is fundamentally tied to sexualisedpower relations. The notion of ‘gender equality’, then,does not make sense to MacKinnon. If sexuality ceased to be amanifestation of dominance, hierarchical genders (that are definedin terms of sexuality) would cease to exist.

Boys & Girls: Gender Differences in Technology Usage

Why Parents May Cause Gender Differences in Kids
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A Feminist Biologist Discusses Gender Differences In …

Betty Friedan's (1963) well-known work is a case in point of white solipsism.[] Friedan saw domesticity as the main vehicle of gender oppression andcalled upon women in general to find jobs outside the home. But shefailed to realize that women from less privileged backgrounds, oftenpoor and non-white, already worked outside the home to support theirfamilies. Friedan's suggestion, then, was applicable only to aparticular sub-group of women (white middle-class Western housewives).But it was mistakenly taken to apply to all women's lives — amistake that was generated by Friedan's failure to takewomen's racial and class differences into account (hooks 2000,1–3).

Gender differences in suicide rates have been shown to be significant

For Butler, sexed bodies never exist outside social meanings and howwe understand gender shapes how we understand sex (1999, 139). Sexedbodies are not empty matter on which gender is constructed and sexcategories are not picked out on the basis of objective features ofthe world. Instead, our sexed bodies are themselves discursivelyconstructed: they are the way they are, at least to a substantialextent, because of what is attributed to sexed bodies and how they areclassified (for discursive construction, see Haslanger 1995, 99). Sex assignment (calling someone female or male) is normative (Butler 1993, 1).[] When thedoctor calls a newly born infant a girl or a boy, s/he is not making adescriptive claim, but a normative one. In fact, the doctor is performing an illocutionary speech act (see the entry on ). In effect, the doctor'sutterance makes infants into girls or boys. We, then, engage inactivities that make it seem as if sexes naturally come in two andthat being female or male is an objective feature of the world, ratherthan being a consequence of certain constitutive acts (that is, ratherthan being performative). And this is what Butler means in saying thatphysical bodies never exist outside cultural and social meanings, andthat sex is as socially constructed as gender. She does not deny thatphysical bodies exist. But, she takes our understanding of thisexistence to be a product of social conditioning: socialconditioning makes the existence of physical bodies intelligible to usby discursively constructing sexed bodies through certain constitutiveacts. (For a helpful introduction to Butler's views, see Salih2002.)

Gender differences in suicide | Wikigender
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Colour Assignment - Preferences

So, this group of feminist arguments against biological determinismsuggested that gender differences result from cultural practices andsocial expectations. Nowadays it is more common to denote this bysaying that gender is socially constructed. This means that genders(women and men) and gendered traits (like being nurturing orambitious) are the “intended or unintended product[s] of asocial practice” (Haslanger 1995, 97). But which socialpractices construct gender, what social construction is and what beingof a certain gender amounts to are major feminist controversies. There is no consensus on these issues. (See the entry on for more on different ways to understand gender.)

Fired for Truth – James Damore's official site

The terms ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ mean differentthings to different feminist theorists and neither are easy orstraightforward to characterise. Sketching out some feminist historyof the terms provides a helpful starting point.

Claims of sex differences fall apart

That is, her view avoids the implausible claim that sex is exclusivelyto do with nature and gender with culture. Rather, the distinction onthe basis of reproductive possibilities shapes and is shaped by thesorts of cultural and social phenomena (like varieties of socialsegregation) these possibilities gives rise to. For instance,technological interventions can alter sex differences illustratingthat this is the case (Alcoff 2006, 175). Women's specificallygendered social identities that are constituted by their contextdependent positions, then, provide the starting point for feministpolitics.