Factors Affecting the Choice of Suicide Method in …

social integration and support, the dissolution of the marriage will have an especially strong effect on increasing suicide risk (Pescosolido and Wright, 1990). Integration of individual-level variables is necessary to understand the confluence of these factors.

risk factors and warning signs of suicide - WebMD

there are certain risk factors that make suicide more likely:
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Studies of risk factors for suicide and suicide attempt ..

Brent DA, Perper JA, Moritz G, Liotus L, Schweers J, Balach L, Roth C. 1994. Familial risk factors for adolescent suicide: A case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89(1): 52-58.

Risk factors for elderly suicide

Kirmayer LJ, Malus M, Boothroyd LJ. 1996. Suicide attempts among Inuit youth: A community survey of prevalence and risk factors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 94(1): 8-17.

Roy A. 1993. Genetic and biologic risk factors for suicide in depressive disorders. Psychiatric Quarterly, 64(4): 345-58.
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The silent epidemic of male suicide | BC Medical Journal

The social and cultural factors correlated with suicide have been considered at four different levels: individual, geographic, societal, and historical influences. The first, the individual, focuses on the influence of specific events in someone’s life and their affiliation with and participation in social groups. An approach at this level assumes that critical life events or circumstances are responsible for suicides. For example, individuals who face divorce, economic strain, or political repression are often characterized as suicide risks. Here, empirical research often relies on the case-control method, comparing at-risk individuals to others, often matched by age and gender. When considering the second level, the focus is on the geographic distributions of suicide, often within countries, and socio-cultural profiles are assessed to see if they contribute to the suicide rate. These studies rely on suicide rates and characteristics of geographical areas. For example, individuals living in areas of low social integration (e.g., high divorce or unemployment rates) have higher risk of suicide. Third, research at the societal level has examined differences in suicide rates cross-nationally. Different countries, having different institutional arrangements, differ significantly with respect to suicide. For example, Northern European societies, especially Finland and Austria, have especially high rates, as do many Eastern European post-Soviet countries (e.g., Hungary and Russia; see , ), whose suicide rates reflect a general worsening of health conditions in a time of societal turmoil and crisis with vast economic, political, and social changes. Further, Confucian societies, Japan and China in particular, have comparatively higher suicide rates than other Asian societies. Moreover, the discrepancy between male and female rate of suicide is much smaller for Asian, especially East Asian, societies. At the historical level of analysis, suicide rates are compared over time periods, to examine either short period effects or longer-term trends. Trends can be examined and correlated with changes over time in social and cultural indictors for various societies. Although these studies use very different approaches and consequently are difficult to compare and analyze (see van Egmond and Diekstra, 1990), they do reflect the importance of understanding context and historical period. The following sections will explore many of the social and cultural factors that influence suicide and will draw upon data from these multiple levels.

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Allebeck P, Varla A, Kristjansson E, Wistedt B. 1987. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 76(4): 414-419.


Qin P, Agerbo E, Westergard-Nielsen N, Eriksson T, Mortensen PB. 2000. Gender differences in risk factors for suicide in Denmark. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177: 546-550.

What’s behind the rise in youth suicides? - CBS News

Society and culture play an enormous role in dictating how people respond to and view mental health and suicide. Culture influences the way in which we define and experience mental health and mental illness, our ability to access care and the nature of the care we seek, the quality of the interaction between provider and patient in the health care system, and our response to intervention and treatment. This has important implications for treating individuals belonging to different racial, ethnic and cultural groups in the United States, as discussed in detail in the Surgeon General’s Report, Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity (US DHHS, 2001). Cultural variables have a far-ranging impact on suicide. They shape risk and protective factors as well as the availability and types of treatment that might intervene to lessen suicide. This chapter describes a framework for thinking about the continuum of cultural influences on suicide. Next, it explores the roles of the individual, of geographical location, of society, and of historical perspective on the social factors that impact the risk of suicide. Finally, some of the barriers to a full understanding of social and cultural forces on suicide are described.