It is important for computer users to be aware of the ethical use of ..

Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics 1.

The variety of privacy-related issues generated by computer technology hasled philosophers and other thinkers to re-examine the concept of privacyitself. Since the mid-1960s, for example, a number of scholars have elaborateda theory of privacy defined as "control over personal information".On the other hand, philosophers Moor and haveargued that control of personal information is insufficient to establish or protectprivacy, and "the concept of privacy itself is best defined in terms ofrestricted access, not control" [ andMoor, 2001] (see also [Moor, 1997]).

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What Do Students Think About Computer Ethics?

Another major risk to computer security is the hacker who breaks intosomeone's computer system without permission. Some hackers intentionally stealdata or commit vandalism, while others merely "explore" the system tosee how it works and what files it contains. These "explorers" oftenclaim to be benevolent defenders of freedom and fighters against rip-offs bymajor corporations or spying by government agents. These self-appointedvigilantes of cyberspace say they do no harm, and claim to be helpful tosociety by exposing security risks. However every act of hacking is harmful,because any known successful penetration of a computer system requires theowner to thoroughly check for damaged or lost data and programs. Even if thehacker did indeed make no changes, the computer's owner must run through acostly and time-consuming investigation of the compromised system [, 1992].

What Do Students Think About Computer Ethics

One of the earliest computer ethics topics to arouse public interest wasprivacy. For example, in the mid-1960s the American government already hadcreated large databases of information about private citizens (census data, taxrecords, military service records, welfare records, and so on). In the USCongress, bills were introduced to assign a personal identification number toevery citizen and then gather all the government's data about each citizenunder the corresponding ID number. A public outcry about "big-brothergovernment" caused Congress to scrap this plan and led the President toappoint committees to recommend privacy legislation. In the early 1970s, majorcomputer privacy laws were passed in the . Ever since then,computer-threatened privacy has remained as a topic of public concern. The easeand efficiency with which computers and computer networks can be used togather, store, search, compare, retrieve and share personal information makecomputer technology especially threatening to anyone who wishes to keep variouskinds of "sensitive" information (e.g., medical records) out of thepublic domain or out of the hands of those who are perceived as potentialthreats. During the past decade, commercialization and rapid growth of theinternet; the rise of the world-wide-web; increasing "user-friendliness"and processing power of computers; and decreasing costs of computer technologyhave led to new privacy issues, such as data-mining, data matching, recordingof "click trails" on the web, and so on [see ,1999].

An ethical hacker is a computer and networking expert who systematically attempts to ..
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Certified Ethical Hacker - CEH | EC-Council

10. Therapists Who Momentarily Slip. A fairly substantial percentage of ethics violators appear to be mental health professionals who usually conduct themselves in a principled and competent manner and who, under normal circumstances, show sufficient sensitivity to ethical dilemmas. However, circumstances can converge to displace one's usual awareness with temporary blindness, sometimes due to an inconvenient situation or distraction. For example, confidential information may slip out. Sometimes, as the result of immediate situational demands, therapists commit acts with unintended consequences, such as revealing too much about their own personal life that ends up backfiring. Every mental health professional is vulnerable to membership in this “Oops!” category, and it is the most difficult type of infraction to predict or prevent.

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Questions of anonymity on the internet are sometimes discussed in the samecontext with questions of privacy and the internet, because anonymity canprovide many of the same benefits as privacy. For example, if someone is usingthe internet to obtain medical or psychological counseling, or to discusssensitive topics (for example, AIDS, abortion, gay rights, venereal disease, dissent), anonymity can afford protection similarto that of privacy. Similarly, both anonymity and privacy on the internet canbe helpful in preserving human values such as security, mental health,self-fulfillment and peace of mind. Unfortunately, privacy and anonymity alsocan be exploited to facilitate unwanted and undesirable computer-aidedactivities in cyberspace, such as money laundering, drug trading, terrorism, orpreying upon the vulnerable (see [Marx, 2001] and [,1999]).

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While the American Historical Association (Jones 2008) has argued thatsuch research be “explicitly exempted” from ethical review boardoversight, the use of the Internet could complicate such a stance ifsuch data became available in public settings or available“downstream” with potential, unforeseeable risks toreputation, economic standing, or psychological harm, shouldidentification occur.