Vaihinger described the origins of his theory in (1924).

8. When entering the confrontation phase, remain calm and self-confident. The colleague may display considerable emotion. Remain as nonthreatening as possible. Even though it may feel like a safe shield, avoid a rigidly moralistic demeanor. Most people find righteous indignation obnoxious and it may thus prove non-productive. We suggest soothing language, such as expressing confusion and seeking clarification. It might go something like, “I met a young woman who, on learning that I was a therapist, told me that she was your client and that the two of you were going to start dating. I thought we should talk about it.” Things are not always as they seem. Social comparison research has shown that people tend to view others as less ethical than themselves and as less ethical than they actually are (Halbesleben, Buckley, & Sauer, 2004). It will always prove wise to allow an explanation at the outset. For example, you may learn that the young woman was a client of your colleague, but only briefly and several years earlier. Such responses may not render the matter entirely moot, but the discussion would likely proceed far differently than had you stormed into the meeting spouting accusations knowing only one version of the story about which you made a mistaken assumption.

In () Valla noted the incompatibility of divine omnipotence with.

This outlook was a significant influence on the psychological theories of.

Coleman (Toronto, 1993) and, ed.

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by Ernst Cassirer, Paul Oskar Kristeller, and John H.

Written for young adults, describes how the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission tried to use spying, sabotage, and state-sponsored repression to prevent African-Americans from winning equal rights as U.S.

Recommended Reading:Hans Vaihinger,  (Garland, 1992) andAndrea Wels, .

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Alert, well-meaning, sensitive, mature, and adequately trained therapists functioning within their bounds of competence will encounter ethical dilemmas that can result in vulnerability to charges of misconduct. Several common conditions that result in confronting an ethical situation are adapted here from Sieber’s (1982) classic scheme.

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Example 3: My parents would encourage me to do well in school sinceacademics was a natural ability and interest of mine. Instead ofseeing this as parental support for my tendencies toward and enjoymentof academics, the therapist reinterpreted the parental words ofencouragement, saying, "Your parents were feeling guilty about thefact that they were abusing you. If you did well in school, theywouldn’t feel like they were causing you any damage or harm by theabuse they were committing."

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Inadequate Anticipation. A therapist may understand a potential ethical problem, but not expect it to arise. Or, a therapist might underestimate the magnitude of the problem or decide that taking safeguards would prove unnecessary or too costly. For example, a therapist treating a couple may not attend sufficiently to the possible confidentiality dilemmas that could develop if a divorce occurs and one parent later attempts to subpoena the treatment records for use in a custody dispute. Potential ethical problems may never materialize, but, if they do, the therapist may be held responsible for not taking reasonable precautions. If there is a complaint, ethics committees and licensing boards may judge the therapist’s actions in hindsight as to whether the problem should have been perceived and avoided.

Ayer, (Dover, 1946);Carl Gustav Hempel, , ed.

Examination of how the Cold War intersected with the final destruction of global white supremacy with focus on the two Souths — Southern Africa and the American South.

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In this phase of therapy, I began to talk less and less about thegood in my family. When I attempted to point out times of happiness, Iwas told that this was not the focus of our session. Every wonderfultime I described from my childhood was taken and twisted into anexample of a dysfunctional family.