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In order to better prepare for the exam and the physical demands of the academy, you are required to attend the Candidate Advancement Program (CAP) and complete the Physical Fitness Qualifier (PFQ). Your score on the PFQ is advisory. You must complete the PFQ at least once prior to appointment. You are welcome to retake the PFQ as many times as you like, and the score is valid for 12 months. If you score less than a 50 on the PFQ, you are strongly encouraged to attend CAP more regularly and retake the PFQ.

Two comments on word usage in this essay:

Experts in computer security, who are  attorneys,speak of

I originally wrote this essay in May 1999.

The is intense and demanding, and the first physical fitness test occurs during the first week of the Academy. Therefore it is critical that candidates don't wait until they are in the Academy to get into good physical shape. It is recommended to begin a physical conditioning program as soon as you apply.

There are three major classes of criminal activity with computers:

In the late 1990s, computer viruses were generally spread via the Internet,either in e-mail (e.g., a virus contained in a MicrosoftWord macro, or a worm contained in an attachment to e-mail)or in programs downloaded from a website.

Unauthorized UseUnauthorized use of computers tends generally takes the following forms:

99-432 (1986), 1986 U.S.C.C.A.N.

However, after about 1975, it became common to enter programs and data fromremote terminals (a keyboard and monitor) using a modem and a telephoneline.

Attacking the FBI website is like poking a lion with a stick.

If you feel that you may need improvement in your written communication skills, we encourage you to take steps to improve in this area. You may want to consider taking a college course in business English and/or essay writing. Below are some courses offered through the Los Angeles Community College District that may interest you.*

This is not the worst kind of computer crime.

However, in the unauthorized use of another's computer, thecriminal "enters" the computer via the telephone lines, which is breaking into the building.

The Internet is a medium for freely sharing information and opinions.

What to think about before taking the PQE
There is no right or wrong answers to the questions. You will be asked to elicit the information needed to evaluate your qualifications for each of the factors discussed above. Each candidate's response will be unique to that candidate, based on his or her life experiences. Prior to your PQE you may want to spend some time reviewing the many events and incidents that make up your personal history and that have helped make you who you are today. Which of these many experiences have prepared you for the position of Police Officer and the factors on which you will be rated?

Candidates are not successful in the PQE for numerous reasons, including the following:

In this way, the computer criminal is acting analogous to a burglar.

For Physical Preparation Tips to help candidates who want to work out on their own, . To help you track your fitness to download the Fitness Log.

The traditional laws were no longer adequate topunish criminals who used computer modems.

There are several basic ways to get these data:

Because the victim computer waits for a response to its return ping, and because there are more zombie computers than victims, the victim computer becomes overwhelmed and either (a) does nothing except respond to bogus pings or (b) crashes.

* Course names, numbers, and descriptions from the Los Angeles City College 06-07 Catalog

When Did Bush First Learn of the Attacks?

This same technology allowed banks to retrieve a customer's currentbalance from the bank's central computer, and merchants to process credit cardbilling without sending paper forms.