I am writing in the Latin alphabet.

People like Burgundio and their pioneering efforts thus tend to be forgotten, but the later work probably owes them a debt that is now hard to estimate.

This is also to be regarded as admirable.

I use Roman names for the planets in the sky, which also get applied to the .

See the use of this word in Plato's .

In exile in Hungary, he was imprisoned by Corvinus, for as much as ten years (1462-1472), although the Hungarians then helped him return to Wallachia in 1476.

Moravcsik, Dumbarton Oaks Texts, 1967, 2008, p.86].

The sister of Corvinus, if she existed, may have been lost in the shuffle and in any case is unlikely to have been the mother of the significant sons of Vlad II.

Sentences I write contain borrowed Latin words with some frequency [e.g.


Sometimes only pitiful fragments were salvaged from them -- even as we see the surviving intact until 1687, when it was blown apart by Turkish gunpowder.

THE EAST ALONE, 476-518, 42 Years

Rome began as a City, grew into an Empire, Romania, in which the City lost its identity, and which then shrank down, in the end, to another City, that meanwhile had preserved and protected the heritage of the Empire.

RETURNING TO THE WEST, 518-610, 92 years

When we realize how much was preserved, in literature, art, and institutions, at Constantinople from the "Fall of Rome," it helps us realize how much Mediaeval Romania was, indeed, still the Roman Empire, just as they tell us.

Third Empire, Middle "Romania," Early "Byzantium," 610 AD-1059 AD

In an age when the politically correct absurdly fall all over themselves to say "Beijing" rather than "Peking" or "Mumbai" rather than "Bombay," probably without being able to "Beijing" or say what "Mumbai" is from, it is extraordinary to find historians who not only do not call the Mediaeval Roman Empire what it was, but who seem to have even that "Romania" was actually its name in both Latin and Greek.

What Nietzsche admired was unapologetic power, conquest, and domination.

They are "Byzantines" -- and we all know how nasty that is.

Gordon mentions that the list of Bulanid Beks, who may have become the Khazar Khagans, is derived from a list sent by the Bek Joseph to Hisdai ibn Shaprut, a Jewish Vizir to the Omayyad Caliph (912-961) in Spain.

Even to , the despotism of Caesar was a grave retrogression in comparison to the .

"PRINCIPATE," 27 BC-235, 261 years

Süleyman's own son, Kilij Arslan, had been kept hostage by Malik Shâh (either against the good behavior of Süleyman or, perhaps more likely, because of the non-cooperative attitude of Kilij Arslan himself).

The very people, as it happens, thanks to whom we  Classical Greek and its literature.


Much remaining from the Classical world was lost, nevertheless, not with the Germanic invasions, the "Fall," and the Dark Ages, but in these later disasters.