Émile Durkheim - Wikipedia

All academic disciplines have what Raymond Williams once referred to as a 'selective tradition' of writings and texts to which the contemporary practitioners of the discipline would allude to as forming the classics of the discipline. Sociology is no different in this regard. Visit the Classic section of the site to learn more about the works of Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, Harriet Martineau, Karl Marx and Georg Simmel amongst others in the classic tradition of sociology.

Biography Childhood and education

Sociology of religion - Wikipedia

In the words of modern thinkers of sociology namely Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim “Social fact should be the subject matter for the study of social life and can provide explanations for human thinking and behavior (p19)”.

Emile Durkheim's Life and Works (1857-1917)

Specialised areas
Environmental sociology
Human ecology (sometimes included into sociology proper)
Industrial sociology
Medical sociology
Micro sociology
Political sociology
Rural sociology
Sociology of religion
Sociology of science and technology
Systems theory
Urban sociology


Introduction To Sociology : 01 History and Introduction

Sociological studies (e.g., Ecklundt 2010) have probed the religiousbeliefs of scientists, particularly in the United States. Theyindicate a significant difference in religiosity in scientistscompared to the general population. Surveys such as those conducted bythe Pew forum (Masci and Smith 2016) find that nearly nine in tenadults in the US say they believe in God or a universal spirit, anumber that has only slightly declined in recent decades. Amongyounger adults, the percentage of theists is about 80%. Atheism andagnosticism are widespread among academics, especially among thoseworking in elite institutions. A survey among National Academy ofSciences members (all senior academics, overwhelmingly from elitefaculties) found that the majority disbelieved in God’sexistence (72.2%), with 20.8% being agnostic, and only 7% theists(Larson and Witham 1998). Ecklund and Scheitle (2007) analyzed responsesfrom scientists (working in the social and natural sciences) from 21elite universities in the US. About 31.2% of their participantsself-identified as atheists and a further 31 % as agnostics. Theremaining number believed in a higher power (7%), sometimes believedin God (5.4%), believed in God with some doubts (15.5%), or believedin God without any doubts (9.7%). In contrast to the generalpopulation, the older scientists in this sample did not show higherreligiosity—in fact, they were more likely to say that they didnot believe in God. On the other hand, Gross and Simmons (2009)examined a more heterogeneous sample of scientists from Americancolleges, including community colleges, elite doctoral-grantinginstitutions, non-elite four-year state schools, and small liberalarts colleges. They found that the majority of university professors(full-time tenured or tenure-track faculty) had some theistic beliefs,believing either in God (34.9%), in God with some doubts (16.6%), inGod some of the time (4.3%), or in a higher power (19.2%). Belief inGod was influenced both by type of institution (lower theistic beliefin more prestigious schools) and by discipline (lower theistic beliefin the physical and biological sciences compared to the socialsciences and humanities).

Free sociology Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe

This scientific investigation of suicide exemplifies Durkheim’s theory of anomie and is considered the first sociological study. First published in 1897 as Le Suicide: Étude de sociologie (Paris: Alcan). First translated 1930 by Marcel Mauss.

Sociology For Dummies Cheat Sheet - dummies

In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, authors from newlyemerging scientific disciplines, such as anthropology, sociology, andpsychology, examined the purported naturalistic roots of religiousbelief. They did so with a broad brush, trying to explain what unifiesdiverse religious beliefs across cultures, rather than accounting forcultural variations. In anthropology, the idea that all culturesevolve and progress along the same lines (cultural evolutionism) waswidespread. Cultures with differing religious views were explained asbeing in an early stage of development. For example, Tylor (1871)regarded animism, the belief that spirits animate the world, as theearliest form of religious belief. Comte (1841) proposed that allsocieties, in their attempts to make sense of the world, go throughthe same stages of development: the theological (religious) stage isthe earliest phase, where religious explanations predominate, followedby the metaphysical stage (a non-intervening God), and culminating inthe positive or scientific stage, marked by scientific explanationsand empirical observations.

Religion and Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Psychologists and sociologists of religion also began to doubt thatreligious beliefs were rooted in irrationality, psychopathology, andother atypical psychological states, as James (1902) and other earlypsychologists had assumed. In the United States, in the late 1930sthrough the 1960s, psychologists developed a renewed interest forreligion, fueled by the observation that religion refused todecline—thus casting doubt on the secularizationthesis—and seemed to undergo a substantial revival (see Stark1999 for an overview). Psychologists of religion have madeincreasingly fine-grained distinctions among types of religiosity,including extrinsic religiosity (being religious as means to an end,for instance, getting the benefits of being in a social group) andintrinsic religiosity (people who adhere to religions for the sake oftheir teachings) (Allport and Ross 1967). Psychologists andsociologists now commonly study religiosity as an independentvariable, with an impact on, for instance, health, criminality,sexuality, and social networks.