How do Alabama parole board members decide whom …
How Montana's Probation and Parole System Works
The early attempts to curb Catharism were largely restricted to counter-preaching, and Dominic led the effort to bring the Languedoc citizens back to the fold. He had little success, and Pope Innocent III crafted an effective solution. In businessmens parlance, it consisted of putting cement shoes on the competition while marketing an ersatz version of their product. Innocent called a Crusade on Languedoc and simultaneously sanctioned the mendicant orders, the Dominicans and Franciscans, who imitated the austere practices of the Cathars. The Albigensian Crusade was waged over decades and completely depopulated parts of France and killed about one million people. The Cathar threat to the Catholic Churchs monopoly was wiped out in a prodigious bloodbath, and the Church enjoyed another three centuries of religious racketeering, until Martin Luther came along. The became the Inquisitions foot soldiers, enforcing the faith with the rack, hot tongs, and flaming stakes.
On this page: Overview of the probation and parole system
An Englishman, Simmons settled in the Midwest in 1870 and began a journalism career. After several years as editor of the , Simmons opened a medical practice, advertising that he specialized in homeopathy and the "diseases of women." He apparently was an abortionist when the AMA was campaigning to ban abortion. Simmons advertised that he received his training and diploma at Rotunda Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. That hospital never issued diplomas. There is no evidence that Simmons ever received any medical training. Simmons then got a diploma from Rush Medical School. There is no evidence that Simmons ever set foot on the medical school campus. He apparently received a mail order degree. Simmons appears to have been the classic "quack." However, Simmons was ambitious and resourceful. He organized a Nebraska chapter of the AMA. In 1899, he was invited to Chicago to take over the editorship of . Simmons saw that the AMA was not properly seizing its opportunities. He quickly named himself the AMAs secretary and general manager. Simmons then found a capable assistant, a man who had been arrested for embezzlement as the Secretary of the Kentucky Board of Health, who may have bought his way to a pardon, and was then encouraged to leave the state. He became Simmons's right hand man.