Parallels In Time, a History of Developmental Disabilities

The life course and the human ecological views of human development also take aview of developmental processes as relational in character. The life course perspectivesignificantly extends the analysis of the developmental process beyond the individual byconsidering the contributions that institutional structure, function, and change make to theperson-context relation and, as well, to the experience of both individuals and groups ofindividuals (cohorts) developing within specific historical periods. For example, peoplewho were children during the economically difficult period of the Great Depressiondeveloped differently across their lives than did people who experienced their childhoodyears in more economically favorable historical periods .

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Parallels in Time: A History of Developmental Disabilities

Overview | Department of Developmental & Molecular …

Understandably, then, for both adolescents and their parents, adolescence is a timeof excitement and of anxiety; of happiness and of troubles; of discovery and ofbewilderment; and of breaks with the past and yet of links with the future. Adolescencecan be, then, a confusing time--for the adolescent experiencing this phase of life; for theparents who are nurturing the adolescent during his or her progression through thisperiod; for other adults charged with enhancing the development of youth during thisperiod of life, and--with disturbing, historically unprecedented frequency--for adolescentswho themselves find themselves in the role of parents.

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Thus, parenting is a complex process, involving much more than a mother orfather providing food, safety, and succor to an infant or child. Parenting involvesbidirectional relationships between members of two (or more) generations; can extendthrough all or major parts of the respective life spans of these groups; may engage allinstitutions within a culture (including educational, economic, political, and social ones);and is embedded in the history of a people--as that history occurs within the natural anddesigned settings within which the group lives . Given, then, thetemporal variation that constitutes history, the variation of culture and of its institutionsthat exist in different physical and designed ecological niches, and the variation, withinand across generations, in strategies for and behaviors designed to fit with these niches,we may note that diversity is a key substantive feature of parenting behavior. Focus onthis variation, rather than on central tendencies, is necessary in order to understandparenting adequately. In addition, there are multiple levels of organization that change inand through integrated, mutually interdependent or "fused" relationships; theserelationships occur over both ontogenetic and historical time ;. As such, context, as well as diversity, is an importantfeature of parenting.

The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments.. In the history of how systems of representation of language through graphic means have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto …

Developmental Trauma: What you Can't See CAN Hurt …

Figure 1. The developmental contextual view of human development: Parent-childrelations, and interpersonal and institutional networks, are embedded in and influenced byparticular community, societal, cultural, and designed and natural environments, allchanging across time (across history).

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As such, the nature of parent-child relations, of family life and development, andof societal and cultural influences on the child-parent-family system are influenced byboth "normative" and "non-normative" historical changes or, in otherwords, by "evolutionary" (i.e., gradual) and "revolutionary" (i.e., abrupt; ,historical changes. This system of multiple, interconnected, "fused," or coacting levelscomprises a complete depiction of the integrated organization involved in thedevelopmental contextual view of human development , ; this systemprovides a useful frame for studying the nature of child-parent relations at this moment inour nation's history. In addition, the system of individual-context relations represented indevelopemntal contextualism provides a frame for interventions pertinent to promotingdesired changes across the life span .

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Given this conception, it is clear why the central idea in developmentalcontextualism is that changing, reciprocal relations (or dynamic interactions) betweenindividuals and the multiple contexts within which they live comprise the essentialprocess of human development ; . Moreover,because time--history--cuts through all the levels of this developmental system, allportions of the system of person-context relations envisioned in developmentalcontextualism change across time. Diversity (variation) within time is created as changeacross time (across history) introduces variation into all the levels of organizationinvolved in the human development system. Accordingly, within developmentalcontextualism diversity--changes within a person over time (intraindividual change) anddifferences between people (interindividual differences) in their patterns ofintraindividual change--is a topic of central importance.