When will China stop the one-child policy?

The evaluation of officials was tied to the ability to meet birth quotas within their jurisdictions. “The leaders of units who meet these birth quotas are more likely to get promotions and bonuses. If a particular area does not meet its birth quota, meaning that the number of children born is in excess of the number the government allows, the leaders of the local population control units would be held responsible for this failure and be disqualified from promotions or bonuses." The establishment of unreasonable targets led to widespread corruption and meddling in the reporting of official figures, which is one of the most significant negative effects of the management method that was used.

2. Zhu WX. The one child family policy. ;88:-

3. Hesketh T, Zhu WX. The one child family policy: the good, the bad, and the ugly.  ;314:-

One-Child Policy Is One Big Problem for China - Newsweek

Other Asian regions also have higher than average ratios, including (110:100) and (108:100), which do not have a family planning policy and the ratio in reached as high as 116:100 in the early 1990s but since then has moved substantially back toward a normal range, with a ratio of 107:100 in 2005. Many studies have explored the reason for the gender-based birth rate disparity in China as well as other countries. A study in 1990 attributed the high preponderance of reported male births in mainland China to four main causes: diseases which affect females more severely than males; the result of widespread underreporting of female births; the illegal practice of made possible by the widespread availability of ; and finally, acts of child abandonment and infanticide. The number of bachelors in China had already increased between 1990 and 2005, implying that China's lack of brides is not solely linked to the one-child policy, as single-child families were only enforced from 1979.

One Child Policy for Dummies - China travel guide

The at birth (between male and female births) in reached 117:100 in the year 2000, substantially higher than the natural baseline, which ranges between 103:100 and 107:100. It had risen from 108:100 in 1981—at the boundary of the natural baseline—to 111:100 in 1990. According to a report by the State Population and Family Planning Commission, there will be 30 million more men than women in 2020, potentially leading to social instability, and courtship-motivated . The correlation between the increase of disparity on birth and the deployment of one child policy would appear to have been caused by the one-child policy.

14. Short SE, Fengying Z. Looking locally at China's one-child policy.  ;29:-

Here’s why China’s one-child policy was a good thing - …

The social fostering or maintenance fee (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: shèhuì fúyǎng fèi) sometimes called in the West a family planning fine, is collected as a multiple of either the annual disposable income of city dwellers or the annual cash income of peasants as determined each year by the local statistics office. The fine for a child born above the birth quota that year is thus a multiple of, depending upon the locality, either urban resident disposable income or peasant cash income estimated that year by the local statistics. So a fine for a child born ten years ago is based on the income estimate for the year of the child's birth and not of the current year. They also have to pay for both the children to go to school and all the family's health care. Some children who are in one-child families pay less than the children in other families. The one child policy was designed from the outset to be a one generation policy.

Scharping, Thomas. Birth Control in China, 1949–2000: Population Policy and Demographic Development. London: Routledge, 2003.

How has the end of its one-child policy affected China

The one-child policy promotes one-child families and forbids couples from having more than one child in urban areas. Parents with multiple children aren't given the same benefits as parents of one child. In most cases, wealthy families pay a fee to the government in order to have second children.

The end of China’s one-child policy - Brookings

The limit has been strongly enforced in urban areas, but the actual implementation varies from location to location. In most rural areas, families are allowed to apply to have a second child if the first is a girl, or has a , or . Second children are subject to (usually 3 or 4 years). Additional children will result in large fines: families violating the policy are required to pay monetary penalties and might be denied bonuses at their workplace. Children born in overseas countries are not counted under the policy if they do not obtain . Chinese citizens returning from abroad can have a second child.

China’s One Child Policy - New York Post

The policy is enforced at the provincial level through that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. Population and Family Planning Commissions (: ) exist at every level of government to raise awareness about the issue and carry out registration and inspection work. Despite this policy, there are still many citizens that continue to have more than one child.[]