Sixty-Four Free Chemistry Databases | Depth-First

Once you establish a "sweet spot" for your unique aquarium environment, use the ratio numbers that work for you!

It is also noteworthy that these buffers only address pH and carbonate hardness and not essential mineral cations.
So please read this article for a more in depth explanation of the use of RO or DI water for aquarium use:

Back to baking soda, this is an old stand by method based on the fact that baking soda does raise pH and KH, the problem is there is much new research to show that calcium, magnesium, electrolytes and Redox play a more important role in aquatic chemistry than just pH or basic KH alone (which is another reason 'good old fashioned water changes' often help improve fish health).
If Baking Soda is used, I recommend using Wonder Shells or similar products (such as AAP/SeaChem Replenish or Aragamix) to added needed calcium and other important electrolytes.

If you have a very unstable KH level (drops rapidly), look into causes such as a large amount of decomposing organic material.

Documentation Jump to top of page

Get this from a library! Physical chemistry in depth. [Johannes Karl Fink]

Aquarium Chemistry | Calcium & KH & GH & pH & …

From Chlorine and Chloramines to Phosphates, Sodium & TDSFor those looking for ACCURATE information about stepping up to a higher level of fish care including better Redox Balance, this article is a MUST READ:

The most RESEARCHED, & IN-DEPTH article on the subject of UV Sterilizer, Clarifier Use in Aquariums or Ponds ANYWHERE.
Based on over 34 years professional use too!!RELATED/RECOMMENDED PRODUCTS
An excellent stand alone product for testing your TDS from Tap, well, or even aquarium water.
A must have for any advanced aquarium keeper.
Including the premier water Buffers such as & for properly mineralizing RO/DI water or for ongoing water ion restoration.
The TMC Advanced Aquarium RO Water Filter system includes a TDS meter and operates at less than 2 cents per gallonIf you use RO Water in your Aquarium or Betta Tanks; this Article is MUST READ:

The TMC Premium Fluidized Sand Bed Filter increases Bio Capacity of any Aquarium system, with unsurpassed Bio-Filtration that NO Canister filter can equal.
The TMC Vecton UV Sterilizer is the best UV Sterilizer in UVC efficiency and quality of construction.For UV-C Replacement Bulbs to maintain your UV Sterilizer (which has an indirect impact on aquarium chemistry via Redox Balance):

Recommended for all freshwater Algae Eaters, African Cichlids, Silver Dollars, Sharks, all saltwater Damsels, Clownfish, and especially Marine Angels and Tangs

Department of Chemistry - Northwestern University

all about enthalpy, thermochemistry and the First Law of thermodynamics - An extensive, in-depth but largely non-mathematical substitute for the usual (and rather thin) textbook treatment. S.K. Lower, Simon Fraser University

Use the special app from MEL Chemistry to study chemistry in more depth
depth flow temperature chemistry of overlying water. Aquatic ecosystems are primarily determined by what characteristics of the overlying water?

Department of Chemistry – College of Arts and Sciences

Thank you for visiting and taking time to learn about our program

Potassium»the essentials [WebElements Periodic Table]