Charles Cornwallis | AGE OF REVOLUTION
Charles Cornwallis Facts - YourDictionary
The CORNWALLIS HOUSE is one of the oldest and most historic buildings in Winnsboro. It is an accepted tradition that this is the house in which the famous General Charles Lord Cornwallis resided during his occupation of Winnsboro from October of 1780 to February of 1781.
The original portion of the house was built on the ground level and was two stories high. A wing and the third floor were later additions. This older portion of the house is enclosed with massive granite walls and partitions that are coated with a hard plaster. The timber used in the framing is all oversized, and it is joined with mortise and pegs. Inside stairs lead from the basement floor to the two floors above. Outside steps lead from the yard to the second-story porch. The lower porch is open but the upper piazza is enclosed with beautifully turned wooden banisters.
The first official record of this house is from 1797. At that time William McMorries, sheriff of Fairfield, deeded the place to Captain John Buchanan in a judgment case. The judgment granted forty-two pounds sterling, plus expenses of two pounds, five shillings and six pence. The lots (including this house) were sold at public auction, and Captain John Buchanan was the highest bidder.
Captain Buchanan was a distinguished soldier of the Revolution and a leading citizen of Fairfield. He was one of the first Americans to greet General Lafayette when he arrived to assist in the struggle for American independence. Captain Buchanan and the French general became close friends, and Buchanan gave him one of his servants, a man named Fortune, to serve him during the war. After the Revolution, when Lafayette visited in this country Fortune rode his pony to Columbia to greet the famous general and was treated as an important guest. A public park today is named for Fortune, where he lived out his life in a cabin at the spring.
Charles Cornwallis - The Free Dictionary
One consequence of the Cornwallis Code was that it, in effect, institutionalized racism in the legal system. Cornwallis, in a manner not uncommon at the time, believed that well-bred gentlemen of European extraction were superior to others, including those that were the product of mixed relationships in India. Of the latter, he wrote "as on account of their colour & extraction they are considered in this country as inferior to Europeans, I am of opinion that those of them who possess the best abilities could not command that authority and respect which is necessary in the due discharge of the duty of an officer." In 1791 he issued an order that "No person, the son of a Native Indian, shall henceforward be appointed by this Court to Employment in the Civil, Military, or Marine Service of the Company." Cornwallis's biographers, the Wickwires, also observe that this institutionalization of the British as an elite class simply added another layer on top of the complex status hierarchy of caste and religion that existed in India at the time. Cornwallis could not have formalized these policies without the (tacit or explicit) agreement of the company's directors and employees.