The World Economy In 2013: The Calm Before The Storm
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Regional integration in Central Asia: From knowing …
These characteristics have meant that historically Central Asian countries have been relatively isolated from the major trans-oceanic routes where most of world trade is transported, and that they depend on their neighbours to access this trade. Kazakhstan depends on the Chinese and Russian corridors to access the major oceans, and Turkmenistan depends on Iran. These are the two countries in Central Asia that depend on the fewest neighbours to connect to the global economy, and that even have a sea border along the Caspian Sea, which enables them to communicate directly with the Caucasus. However, in the case of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan their isolation is even greater. Uzbekistan depends on at least two countries to access the trans-oceanic routes and, in view of the steep terrain on the Chinese border with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan these countries in turn depend on another two or more to reach the oceans. Along with the constraints of the terrain, another factor that has influenced communications in Central Asia with other neighbouring regions has been that the current network of roads and rail built during the Soviet era followed a north-south pattern to converge with the so-called Siberian Corridor between Moscow and European Russia, including the Siberian cities of Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Chita and Khabarovsk to Vladivostok, on the shores of the Pacific. This corridor is around 10,000 km long. This kind of design is still today determining the way goods are moved in Central Asia. The railway is the most widely used method in Central Asia to transport goods over long distances: approximately 90% of exports are transported by rail. The following maps show the most widely used sections of railway according to research by CAREC (Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation). The thicker lines are the routes transporting the greatest tonnage.
Silk Road Studies - Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & …
In fostering integration, the EBRD is aligned with major international policy efforts. Achieving integration through connectivity is high on the international agenda, having been highlighted by the world’s 20 leading economies (the G20), international financial institutions (IFIs) and the (OECD) in the recent creation of the new Global Infrastructure Connectivity Alliance. ’s , linking China to the global economy, is another example of how integration is critical for the wider world.
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