Ottonian Art: History, Characteristics

The Mabinogion tales were the product of a literate culture, albeit one informed by a considerable hinterland of oral tradition. In the earliest of the Mabinogion tales, , the traces of this background are most clearly apparent. Not only is it based on the time-honoured scenario of (variants of which are found on every inhabited continent of the world), but this also includes stylistic features bear the impress of the oral delivery. One thinks of the rich descriptive sequences resembling the crescendos of traditional Welsh (the echo of which can be heard in the chapels and town halls to this day). However, even within this most 'oral' of the Mabinogion narratives, an element of literary self-consciousness appears to be at play. If Joan Radnor's interpretation of is indeed correct the author appears to be sending-up the genre, playing on its excesses, as we will consider in more detail . Ironic humour of this kind operates partially undercover, appearing on the surface to say one thing, while its true meaning is apparent only to a privileged inner circle of cognoscenti. Such a perspective is wholly characteristic of a literary elite, which probably (in the eleventh century at least) was drawn more or less exclusively from a distinct clerical caste. Read in this light, we can see the target of the parody here is not only the rollicking excesses of the Arthurian , but also the (illiterate) lay majority themselves whose enjoyment of such tales was of a rather less sophisticated calibre.

the styles of Carolingian Art ..

In due course, they were followed by  such as Carolingan and Byzantine illuminated manuscripts.

Pre-Romanesque Art and Architecture - Wikipedia, The …

Reviewing the Mabinogion texts within the pages of the Red and White Books, one is forced once again to register the extraordinary range of literature with which late medieval Welsh reader seems to have been acquainted – religious and secular works; translated texts and those of a more local pedigree; philosophical, elegaic and comical genres; items of historical record and more imaginative works which in modern terms would be understood as ‘fiction’. Such richness was of course entirely characteristic of Welsh letters from the Age of the Llywelyns, as we have seen. But the extraction of the Mabinogion texts from this dense thicket of medieval literature was the result of an editorial process that took place not in the medieval era itself but in the early nineteenth century, as part of an antiquarian project that culminated in the publication of the volumes by Lady Charlotte Guest between 1838 and 1849. Does it merely represent nothing more than an artificial assemblage based on the tastes and preoccupation of its Romantic nineteenth-century editors? Or are there certain inherent qualities which justify the consideration of these texts as a group, distinguishing them from those around them?

28/11/2013 · Pre-Romanesque Art and Architecture

Note that Croatian is the same language as Serbian, but that Serbian is written in the Cyrillic alphabet and spoken by , who are Orthdox rather than Catholic and historically part of Romania rather than Francia.
The first durable state and kingdom in the East is that of Croatia, which was part of the Carolingian empire, revolting against it in 818.

Even the inscription on the Ottonian panel is for the most part in Greek.

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Nowhere do we find this nativist literary culture more characteristically represented than in the pages of the Book of Taliesin. This fourteenth-century codex, consisting entirely of poetic works, appears to have been copied from older manuscript sources, some of which would appear to derive from texts dating as far back as the sixth century AD. As a document it is of particular interest as it is clear that the author of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi was acquainted with a number of the works it contains and evidently regarded them as authoritative sources. Along with the Four Branches themselves, the early group of Triad collections and the Black of Carmarthen, the Book of Taliesin represents one of our most important records of the introspective thoughtworld of the bardic orders.

Spain and Portugal , 718 AD-Present

A slightly different picture is presented by the two versions of the Welsh Romance of that are found in two thirteenth-century manuscripts, Peniarth 7 and Peniarth 14. The significant variations that exist between these two recensions, and between these and their counterparts in the Red and White books, suggest a rather more prolific and fluid manuscript tradition. No one of these documents would appear to be the direct source of the other: suggesting that was a popular and widely-copied text in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Moreover, the differences between these various recensions are not only confined to minor details of spelling and orthography, but also in phraseology, content and even plot structure. As well as presenting a considerable headache for modern editors, who have struggled in vain to reconstruct the ‘authorative’ , this prodigous variation also suggests a creative aspect to the scribal culture in medieval Wales, in which copiers felt at liberty to amend or even reinterpret the text, much as an oral storyteller might offer his own, idiosyncratic retellings of a traditional popular tale. While some texts seem to have become ‘fixed’ (and this might explain the relatively stable character of the Mabinogi) it is clear that rather more fluid copying practices also prevailed. (We find something similar in the manuscript tradition of Medieval Ireland, the widely varient recensions of the being a characteristic example.)

Posts about Carolingian Renaissance written by Jonathan Jarrett

Even in the early 20th century, when Spain seemed the most behind the times, the brilliant architect, Antonio Gaudí (1852-1926) produced work at once uniquely Spanish and modern -- in an area of art, architecture, where most would think traditional Spanish forms particularly derivative of Islâm.