c. 13,000 BCE by boat and 9,000 BCE by land

In 1557, a mere generation after the huge Incan haul began hitting Spain’s shores, . Although some Spanish scholars cautioned the Crown that simply importing shiploads of gold and silver would not improve Spain’s economy, if nothing were done to develop the real economy, their advice was ignored. By about 1580, especially with the agriculturalist Moors expelled, Castile no longer raised enough food to feed its people, and by the 1590s, its textile industry was in steep decline. Price levels rose in Spain by 500% by 1600, the Spanish Armada was destroyed in battle with England in 1588, bubonic plague swept through Spain beginning in 1596, killing off nearly 10% of its population, and Spain was arguably worse off in 1600 than in 1500, for one of history’s greatest ironies. The 1500s had seen Spain rise to the height of European power, to decline into a backwater, imperial has-been, and its empire was eventually seized by its rivals, or its imperial domains revolted and became independent. Gold, weapons, and rapaciousness generate no real wealth, and Spain’s experience is instructive.

Via Siberia-Alaska (15 kya by boat, 11 kya by land)

Sumerian wheat yields decline by 42% between 2400 and 2100 BCE.

in Anatolia, Balkans, or Caucasus.

This country was not officially founded in that radical's name, nor are his theories officially recognized here, but the person's work and life supposedly has many adherents in this country. You could fool me.

, and Egypt comes under Roman rule the next year.

His ideas were far ahead of his time back then, and they seem equally far ahead of the present time. When ever will the example of the life of Jesus actually be taken seriously? I hope soon, for the sake of us all, including those awful Iraqis.

A village that began with shepherds’ huts becomes the city called Rome.

delineates the eventual New World domains of Portugal and Spain.

The American flag was originally the British Union Jack with white stripes added. The American flag was created solely because ships needed to carry a flag. Adopting a flag was a trifling formality for the Founding Fathers. No flags flew in the early days of the American republic, and even the Founding Fathers were not sure what it looked like. A year after the American flag was adopted, a letter to the king of Naples, signed by Ben Franklin and John Adams, informed the king that the American flag "consists of thirteen stripes, alternately red, white and blue." In 1794, a bill was introduced to add two stars to the flag, because Vermont and Kentucky were admitted to the union. Congressmen objected that their important time was being wasted by such a trivial matter, and the bill was quickly adopted “as the quickest way of terminating” discussion of it. The Betsy Ross “stitching-the-flag” story is a fabrication, concocted by her grandson. There are no contemporary depictions of the American flag in American Revolution artwork. Francis Scott Key, who wrote the poem that was wedded to a drinking song to become the national anthem, thought that the USA had begun the War of 1812 and deserved to lose it.

Etruscan civilization is at its peak influence, to eventually fall to neighboring states.

Europe is gripped by that lasts until 1317.

People I consider enlightened Christian Americans refuse to say the pledge of allegiance and salute the flag, because it is the worship of an inanimate object, which is idolatry and something that the Second Commandment forbids. They consider saluting the American flag to be the equivalent of Moses’s followers worshipping the golden calf. Interestingly, as I drafted this essay in July 2002, a federal judge declared the pledge of allegiance unconstitutional, because of the words “under God” (added to the pledge in 1954, during the McCarthy witch hunts) in it. American politicians called the ruling ridiculous, but both the politicians and judge missed the real issue, which is that the entire pledge of allegiance amounts to an act of religion that American children are forced to undergo. Few Americans seem to think that flag and state worship are not acts of religion, even when laws pertaining to flag treatment use overtly religious terms such as “desecration.”

, the Azores in 1427, and the Cape Verde Islands in 1450.

The UK played the Great Game with Russia in Central Asia, and Afghanistan was an imperial battleground. While the Great Powers were securing the planet, there were also imperial losers. The Ottoman Empire began declining during the 1500s. Ironically, Europe had more ancient and lasting animosity with Islamic peoples than any other non-European culture, but they were about the planet’s last peoples to have the European boot laid across their necks.

Gutenberg invents printing press in the German city of Mainz.

American nationalism began its ascent during the 1820s and reached a fevered pitch with , as the USA began looking more like a proper empire. As the continental theft was completed, and “surplus” Europeans flooded in, there was a conscious attempt to create a new form of religion: state worship. Fittingly, a Marxist minister created the American pledge of allegiance in 1892, in a conscious attempt to create a new object of worship. The original pledge was not performed in the hand-over-heart way that we see today. The “” was originally given with an outstretched arm pointing to the flag, palm down. It stayed that way until 1942, when the fascist salutes of Hitler and Mussolini looked like the American pledge of allegiance, and Americans took their arms down and placed them over their hearts. The connection with Nazi Germany is more than a coincidence. In the 20th century, only three states had a pledge of allegiance: the USA, Nazi Germany, and the USA's vassal state, the .