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Biological evolution, the process by which all living things have evolved over many generations from shared ancestors, explains both the unity and the diversity of species. The unity is illustrated by the similarities found betwen species; which can be explained by the inheritance of similar characteristics from related ancestors. The diversity of species is also consistent with common ancestry; it is explained by the branching and diversification of lineages as populations adapted, primarily through natural selection, to local circumstances.

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Human Knowledge: Foundations and Limits

We must wake up and understand what is happening around us. Genetic manipulation experiments are being conducted, right now, to develop the more precise methods of separating, altering and inserting genes which will enable the unrestricted manipulation of the genes of all living organisms, including humans. Scientists have already succeeded in cloning a human using a cow’s egg. (Herald Sun, Friday. June 18, 1999 Pg 3) Genetic modification is seen by some people as accelerated ‘evolution’ which is controlled and guided by the genetic engineers. The geneticists are claiming that their alterations are for the benefit of all of humanity. In some cases this may indeed be their intention. But too often these changes appear to be for the benefit of the geneticists’ careers and for their wealthy employers. Even the farmers rarely benefit. As New Scientist says: "Most American farmers who have turned to genetically engineered crops seem to be getting yields no better than farmers who grow traditional varieties. They also appear to be using similar quantities of pesticides." (Kurt Kleiner, Field of Dreams, New Scientist, 10 July, 99, Pg 14) Third World nations are concerned that most gene tech companies are more interested in stealing their genetic material and patenting it for their own purposes than they are in helping them feed their populations. These concerns are well documented in Luke Anderson’s book .

We Need to Talk About Human Genetic Engineering Before …

Organic products have premium market which make not available to the whole population due to prices constraints. The prices of organic products is increased by factor such as: small scale production, widely dispersed farm, separate packing facilities more expensive recycled packaging and pricing policies of shops. Some consumers are ready to pay more for food that has superior quality. Consumer demand for organic products is gradually increasing due to concern about the environments and health implications of industrial agriculture although there is no relation between consumer and producer but the poor financial performance of organic farming reflects the financial problems of small farmers in some cases due to lack of access to premium market helps. Such difficulties have forced out from the business the small organic farmers. It is possible that organic farmers market their products directly but it requires more labour and organisation. Organic food are supplied to supermarket also provide home delivery. Seasonal production and regional markets remain an important objective in organic farming. We have to maintain National Organic Standards Board to decide the criteria of what is organic? International movements (IFOAM) has formulated basic standards to define organic production. Food containing products of gene technology should be labelled, so consumer have an option, Bioethics influences the marketability of products derived from biotechnology. It is the consumers who decide on the prospects of biotechnological markets. Organic food should be labelled that consumer products not derived from genetically engineered varieties. Organic product must boost-out agribusiness, chemical-biotech corporation and giant supermarket chain. The most developed markets for organic food are Northern World.

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