Other potential harms include: loss of useful pest resistance genes, harm to beneficial non-target species, the unleashing of secondary pest problems, the creation of new or worse viruses, and other unknown harms.20 Unconfined release of GMOs into the environment can have different effects depending on ecosystem attributes, in different years, with different crops, and on different scales of introduction. This means that unintended or unexpected (untested) effects may occur after commercial release, since confined release testing can only elaborate data on those issues that were actually . Further, the rapid move to commercialize GM trees and fish presents an entirely new subset of environmental risks, which as at the moment are not subject to regulation.

developed an artificial intelligence system based ..

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one is the so-called expert system.

In environmental terms, GMOs have the potential to cause dramatic and irreversible adverse environmental effects. These include the creation of new pests, the enhancement of the effects of existing pests, harm to beneficial non-target species (see 'Environmental Risks' section, infra), species extinction, and disruptive effects on ecosystem processes and functions. Examples of such disruptive effects include horizontal gene transfer5 and the potential for accumulation of active (Bt) endotoxin in the soil where it could persist for hundreds of days, retaining active insectisidal properties.6

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Utilization of the concept of substantial equivalence in this context is problematic, as it is a standard derived from health assessments, not environmental ones. Its use as a safety baseline for environmental evaluation does not necessarily follow, in that it does not contemplate alternative systems of agriculture being harmed by biotechnology. This ignores problems such as pollen spread and out-crossing and consequential harm to neighbouring farmers. It does not adequately assess harm to non-target organisms, such as insects. GM crops cleared by the CFIA are not adequately addressing potential risks, leaving it up to chance how large-scale release in varied ecosystems will play out. Precaution demands a more intensive assessment process.

In some instances, a mix of public and private sector expertise could be beneficial. International exposure and familiarity with “best international practice” are key assets. Experts should have good analytical skills, well-developed oral and written communication, and fluency in English.
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The Government of Canada's response looks in depth at the existing regulatory system for biotechnology—aspects covering health, the environment and socio-economic issues, as they pertain to sustainable development in this country. It provides an overview of the comprehensive manner in which Canada regulates industry and other stakeholders in this rapidly expanding scientific field. It also describes the "checks and balances" in the system as well as future legislative mechanisms that are in development.

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The not-for-profit integrated health care system, ..