Men Are Dropping Out Because Their Women Are Becoming …
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Resolved, That such laws as conflict, in any way, with the true and substantial happiness of woman, are contrary to the great precept of nature, and of no validity; for this is "superior in obligation to any other.
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Resolved, That all laws which prevent woman from occupying such a station in society as her conscience shall dictate, or which place her in a position inferior to that of man, are contrary to the great precept of nature, and therefore of no force or authority.
Becoming a Woman: Trans Women and Male Violence
Elizabeth Spelman (1988) has influentially argued against genderrealism with her particularity argument. Roughly: gender realistsmistakenly assume that gender is constructed independently of race,class, ethnicity and nationality. If gender were separable from, forexample, race and class in this manner, all women would experiencewomanhood in the same way. And this is clearly false. For instance,Harris (1993) and Stone (2007) criticise MacKinnon's view, that sexualobjectification is the common condition that defines women's gender,for failing to take into account differences in women's backgroundsthat shape their sexuality. The history of racist oppressionillustrates that during slavery black women were‘hypersexualised’ and thought to be always sexuallyavailable whereas white women were thought to be pure and sexuallyvirtuous. In fact, the rape of a black woman was thought to beimpossible (Harris 1993). So, (the argument goes) sexualobjectification cannot serve as the common condition for womanhood since it varies considerably depending on one's race and class.